Mahe a Dinotshi le Peo e Phofshwana

© Eli Shany

Ke eng peo e Phofshwana?

Peo e phofshwana ke ntho e hlahiswang ke dichakatsa tsa dimela tse behang peo. E na le dimela tse ntle tsa peo e phofshwana tse nang le di gametes tsa banna (peo ya botona ya semela). Di gametes tsena tsa banna tse peo e phofshwana di kopane le disele tse ding tse ntseng di bitswa ho itlhoma ka popelong.

Ho bua ka mokgwa o fapaneng, ho na le mefuta e mmedi ya peo e phofo:
Peo e phofshwana ya Entomophilous - e bokellwa ke dikokonyana nakong ya peo ya dikokwana-hloko.
Peo e phofshwana ya Anemophilous - e tsamaiswang ke moya ho ena le dikokwana-hloko mme e amana le ho kula.

Peo e phofshwana ke mohlodi wa bohlokwa wa dijo bakeng sa dinotshi, ho fana ka diprotheine ho ja dijo tsa dinotshi tse hodileng, mme ho bohlokwa bakeng sa ho fumana boima boemong bo botle ba dinotshi.

Mehlodi ya peo e Phofshwana

Afrika Borwa, difate tsa meru, difate tsa matswallwa le dihlahla, dijalo tsa temo, mofoka le dipalesa tsa serapeng di fana ka peo e phofshwana (diprotheine) le lero (dikhabohaedreite) bakeng sa dinotshi tsa mahe a dinotshi ho hlahisa dijo. Dimela tsena di lokolla lero le peo e phofshwana ka dinako tse fapaneng.

Boemo ba protheine bo fapana le mehlodi e sa tshwaneng ya peo e phofshwana. Peo e phofshwana e phahameng e hlahiswa ke mefuta ya clover, difate tsa almond le difate tsa pere, mefuta ya Populus, lupin le canola. Peo e phofshwana ya boleng bo fokolang e bokellwa ho tloha ho di blueberries, soneblomo, ditholwana tsa mofuta wa lamunu le mefuta ya Typha.

Diphuputso tsa 2017 Saudi Arabia di ile tsa etsa qeto ya diprotheine tsa peo e phofshwana tse nang le lera (20,2%), difate tsa palema (19,8%), canola (18,9%), squash ya lehlabula (16,4%) le soneblomo (15, 2%).

Afrika Borwa, mehlodi ya peo e phofshwana e ka kenyelletsa echium e pherese (diprotheine tse fetang 30%), macadamia (16 - 22%), poone (14 - 15%) le difate tsa phaene (7 - 8%). Ditholwana tsa protheine bakeng sa mefuta ya di Eucalyptus e fapana ho tloha ho 17% ho isa ho 30%.

Hara lifate tsa gum Afrika Borwa, dipalesa tse kgubedu tse mamina (Corymbia ficifolia), ironbark e putswa (Eucalyptus paniculata), yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) le ironbark e ntsho e na le molemo haholo ho dinotshi.

Ho Bokella Peo e Phofshwana

Peo e phofshwana e bokellwa ke linotsi tsa basebetsi mme e iswa matlwaneng a dinotshi ka dibasekete tsa peo e phofshwana (corbicula) ka maoto a ka morao. Peo e phofshwana e bokellwa mmeleng wa dinothi. Ha di ntse di fofela, phallo ya mapheo e etsa motlakase o tsitsitseng le tefiso e mpe. Ha dinotshi di eba le lipalesa, peo e thothomela ho tswa ho di anther mme e kgomarele ho moriri o tsitsitseng o kwahelang mmele wa mahe a dinotshi.

Leleme la dinotshi le mehlahare di boetse di sebediswa ho lata le ho bokella peo ya peo e phofshwana ya meroho e phofshwana, e etsa hore e kgomarele. Peo e phofshwana ka morao ke maoto a ka morao, e kopantswe ka dibolo ebe e kenngwa ho corbicula.

Ha morao, peo e phofshwana e kenngwa ka seleng, hammoho le disebediswa tse ding.

Peo e Phofshwana e le Mohlodi wa Dijo

Ha peo e phofshwana ka hara dinotshi mme e kenngwa ka disele tse se nang letho, e tswakane le lero le metswako ya madi pele e tiiswa ka seleng ka lerothodi la mahe a dinotshi. Maro ana a silang dijo phepong a na le dibaktheria tsa lactic acid tse fokolang tswekere, di pshatla diprotheine ka di amino acid tse bonolo le tse thibelang hlobo.

Motswako ona, o bitswang 'bohobe ba dinotshi' o fepelwa ho tshenyane ya dinotshi tsa mahe a dinotshi le dinothi tse sa tswa qhotswa. Ba sebetsang ba banyane ba dinotshi ba hloka bohobe ba dinotshi tse nang le protheine e le hore ba hlahise ditshwelesa tseo ba di hlokang ha e le dinotshi tse hodileng ho ifepa ka tshenyane le mofumahadi wa dinotshi. Dinotshi tse hodileng di ja mahe a dinotshi.

Peo e phofshwana ya dinotshi e fumaneha kgwebong bakeng sa ho sebediswa ke batho mme e bokellwa ke barui ba dinotshi ho tloha dinotshing tse sebetsang, ho sebedisa sefate sa peo e phofshwana. Tshebediso ya peo e phofshwana e bile e hanyetsanang, mme ka sebele, Food and Drug Administration (Food and Drug Administration ya United States ) (FDU) kaofela ha yona ke ditlhaloso tsa tshebetso ya 'mohlodi o moholo ka ho fetisisa wa protheine’, 'mmolai wa dikokwana-hloko' le 'ho fokotsa ho kudiswa ke dintho tsohle'.

Dikgohlano kgahlanong le tshebediso ya peo ya dinotshi bakeng sa batho ho kenyelletsa hore sena se tla fokotsa diprotheine tse fumanehang bakeng sa dinotshi, ho phaella moo, taba ya hore ho na le mekgwa e theko e tlaase ya ho tlatsetsa dijo tsa motho.

Translated by Bongani Matabane