Tinyoxi ta Vulombe na Pollen

© Eli Shany

Xana i Yini Pollen?

Pollen i mapa lawa ya humelerisiwaka hi swirhabyani leswi tswalaka mbewu swa swimilani. Swina mbewu ya mapa leyingana tindzoho letingana ti gametes ta xinuna (ti sperm cells ta ximilani). Ti gametesleti ta xinuna letinga eka pollen tihlangana nati cells tinwana eka maendlelo lawa ya vuriwaka fertilisation.

Ku hlamusela hi vuenti, kuna tinxaka timbirhi ta pollen.
Entomophilous pollen – yi hlengeletiwa hi switsotswana loko switsotswana swi endla pollination.
Anemophilous pollen – yi hangalasiwa hi moya kungari switsotswana naswona swifambelana na ti allergies.

Pollen i swakudya swa nkoka swa tinyoxi, leyi phakelaka ti protein eka swakudya swa tinyoxi letikulu, naswona swina koka eka ku nyuhela ka vana lava ha ku tlhotlhoriwaka.

Laha ku Kumekaka Pollen

E Afrika Dzonga, misinya ya gum, misinya yale kaya na swihlahla, swimilani leswi rimiweke, nhova na mabilomu yale xirhapeni hiswona switisaka pollen (protein) na nectar (carbohydrates) leswaku tinyoxi ta vulombe ti endla swakudya. Swimilani leswi swihumesa nectar na pollen hi minkarhi yohambana.

Nhlayo ya ti protein ya hambana kuya hiku hambana ka lomu yi humaka kona. Pollen ya xiyimo xale henhla yi humelerisiwa hi tinxaka ta clover, almond na misinya ya pear, rixaka ra Populus, lupin na canola. Khwalithi yale hansi ya pollen yi hlengeletiwa kusuka eka ti blueberries, sunflower, citrus na muxaka wa Typha.

Vulavisisi hi 2017 byale Saudi Arabia byi hlamusele nhlayo ya ti protein ta pollen eka lucerne (20,2%), date palm (19,8%), canola (18,9%), summer squash (16,4%) na sunflowers (15,2%).

E Afrika Dzonga, laha ku kumekaka pollen kunga katsa purple echium (over 30% protein), macadamia (16-22%), mavele (14-15%) na misinya ya pine (7-8%). Nhlayo yati protein eka muxaka wa Eucalyptus wu hambana kusuka eka 17% kuya eka 30%.

Yin’wani ya misinya ya gum e Afrika Dzonga, nsinya wa gum lowu humesaka mabilomu yotshuka (Corymbia ficifolia), grey ironbark (Eucalyptus paniculata), yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora) na black ironbark yi vuyerisa swinene eka tinyoxi.

Ku Hlengeletiwa ka Pollen

Pollen yi hlengeletiwa hitinyoxi leti tirhaka naswona yitekiwa yiyisiwa e bakweni kuya eka switsembani swa pollen (corbicula) eka milenge yatona yale ndzhaku. Pollen yi hlengeletiwa eka miri lowungana voya wa nyoxi. Loko tirikarhi ti haha, kufamba ka tipapa ta yona swi endla leswaku kuva na gezi rokarhi. Loko nyoxi yi phatsama eka bilomu, pollen yi dzudzeka kusuka eka swirhabyani kutani yitshama eka voya lebyinga eka miri wa nyoxi hinkwawo.

Ririmu ra nyoxi xikan’we natihlaya switirhisiwa ku nantswa xikan’we naku hlengeleta ti pollen grains laha titsakamisaka ti pollen granules, leswi endlaka leswaku swidamarhelana. Kutani pollen yi haleriwa kun’we hi milenge yale ndzhaku, yi vumbiwa ku endla xirhendzevutani kutani yi tshikeleriwa yiva corbicula.

Loko yitlhelele e bakwini, pollen liya yi cheriwa eka cell, xikan’we na swinwana.

Pollen Tani hi Swakudya

Loko pollen yi tekiwa kuya e bakwini kutani yi cheriwa eka ti cells letingariki na nchumu, yi katsiwa na nectar xikan’we na marha yaku gayeleka loko yanga se pfaleriwa eka cell na thonsi ra vulombe. Marha lawa yaku gayela yana bacteria ya lactic acid leyi gayelaka kantsongo chukele, ya fayelela ti protein tiva ti amino acids leti gayelekaka naswona tisivela leswaku kuva na kukurha.

Nkatsakanyo lowu, wuvuriwa ‘bee bread’ leyi phameriwaka vulombe eka vana va tinyoxi lavaha ku tlhotlhoriwaka. Tinyoxi letintsongo leti tirhaka tilava bee bread leyi fuweke hiti protein leswaku tita endla mati lawa ya laviwaka hi tinyoxi letikulu kuphamela vana na nyoxi ya queen. Tinyoxi letikulu tidya vulombe.

Pollen ya tinyoxi yakumeka ku xavisiwa kuva yi dyiwa hi vanhu naswona yi hlengeletiwa hi vahlayisi va tinyoxi kusuka eka tinyoxi ta vulombe, hikuva vatirhisa pollen trap. Ku tirhisiwa ka pollen aswi twisiseki naswona himpela, va United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA) va kanetana na swikoxo swa ‘mphakelo wa ntumbuluko wati protein’, ‘swidlaya switsongwatsongwani’ na ‘xihorisa allergy’. Minjhekanjhekisano ya kutirhisiwa ka pollen ya tinyoxi kuva yi dyiwa hi vanhu yikatsa leswaku leswi swita hunguta kukumeka ka ti protein ta tinyoxi, ku engetela kwalano, xikan’we na mhaka yaleswaku kuna maendlelo yoka yanga durhi yaku seketela swakudya swa vanhu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni