Izinsuku Zakuqala ze Robben Island

Indlela Ama Europe Ayesebenzisa Ngayo i-Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
I-Robben Island yaqala ukusetshenziswa ngabaseEurope, yayiba yisitobhi esiwusizo kubashayeli bemikhumbi nxashana besendleleni ebheke Empumalanga. Kuncane okuyizinkomba ukuthi abomdabu baseKapa bake bazikhathaza ukuzama ukufinyelela esiqhingini ngokubhukuda. Abase Europe babefike bame njalo njalo qede bavune onogwaja basolwandle kunye no phengwini, imibhalo iveza ukuthi abagwedli bemikhumbi babebamba no phengwini ababalelwa ku 1100 ngosuku babagcwalise isikebhe. Nebala igama lalesiqhingi liqhamuka egameni lesi Dutch elithi: ‘Robbe’ elichaza ‘onogwaja basolwandle’.

Iqhaza elikhulu lokuqala le Robben Island kwabe kuwukuba yinqolobane kubagwedli base Europe. Kusuka ko 1600 kuya phezulu, Ama Europe abe esesebenzisa isiqhingi njengeposi elingekho emthethweni, ayeshiya imibiko nezincwadi ngaphansi kwamadalwa ayeqoshwe ukuthi ‘amatshe eposi‘ kwimikhumbi eyayifike icinge. Kunemibiko futhi yemikhumbi eyayifa bese abagwedli babephoqeleka ukuphila esiqhingini izinyanga, nkashana besalinde uncedo.

Ukufa Kwemikhumbi Osebeni Lwe Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Ulwandle olugudle isiqhingi lunamadlambi amaningi, okwenza kwedlulele wukuthi, isiqhingi sikakwe wujenge lwamadwala anqwabelene eqonde kwakuhlaza amanzi lawa. Hlanganisa lokhu-ke nezivunguvungu zakhona nenkungu ekhasa phansi evese imboze ulwandle iAtlantic, lapho unesijabane esikufaka emathubeni okushayisa umkhumbi qede ufe. Nakuba babevamise ukubasa umlilo ukuze ube wuphawu e-Fire Hill (lentaba esibizwa nge Monte), Ingaphezu kwenga 30 imikhumbi okubikwa ukuthi yaziphahlaza kulesiqhinganyana esincu. Iningi lezigameko zenzeka phambi kokuba kwakhiwe iLighthouse ngo 1863, nanxa kunjalo imikhumbi yayisaqhubeka ukumangazwa yilesiqhingi. Ugu lwesiqhingi enyakatho luqholosha ngezinsalela zemikhumbi eyazishayisa kulo, yonke esiphenduka mathambo amhlophe emadwaleni.

AmaBrithani eCape of Good Hope

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngo 1602, i Dutch East India Company (ngesi Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, kumbe i-VOC), yasungulwa e Holland, lokho okwabe kuwukuqala kwenkampani encane nje (Inkampani yokuqala emhlabeni ye Limited Stock) yakwenza kwaba wumsebenzi wayo njengongxiwankulu ukuba iphathe emzileni obheke eMpumalanga. Ukukhulisa lenkampani, i-VOC yaqala yaphenya amathuba okusungula ikhaya lokubonakala kwama Europe endaweni eyayizoba yisikhala esihle okuyi Cape Of Good Hope, ezoba phakathi Komhlaba Omdala noMhlaba Omusha. Kuseyilesosikhala esekuso nanamuhla, ngesisho nangokwakheka kwayo. Ngeshwa kwafika kuqala izitha zabo eKapa. Ngo 1614, i British East India Company yahlela ukubeka abanecala eKapa. Ngokuqhubeka kwalethwa amadoda ohlobo oluhlukene abalelwa ku 18 noma 19 ayekhethiwe ukuyiswa eKapa esikhundleni sokugwetshwa. Babeyiqembu lokuqala leziboshwa ukuhanjiswa, okwagcina kuba yinqubo eyavelela neyagcina isivumbuka nasesizweni sase Australia (esihlale sinomhawu ngezokugwetshwa).

Owokuqala owaholwa ekuweleni egameni leBrithani aye kwelama Khoikhoi eKapa u Xhore, kwagcina ngodweshu olwenza kugcina kubulawa amadoda amanye alimala. Lokho ngokuchaza kuka Xhore wakuchaza njengongqubuzano-mqondo, owayefuna ukwazi kungani aMaBrithani ayeshiye abantu ngemumva azohlala namaKhoikhoi ezweni lawo. Wathembisa ukubasiza abafo uma iNgilandi izomlekelela ongqubuzanweni analo ngesizwe esizinzile lapha. Masisha emva kwesikhathi, kwaba nodweshu olunqala phakathi kwababengabafo nesizwe sika Xhore, lokho okwaphoqa abelungu ukuba bagxumele ezikebheni zabo ezincane babalekele eRobben Island.

Indawo Yokugoba Amadlangala

©Roger de la Harpe
Emva kokuthi amasu okutakula ebheke eceleni, abathathu kwabasinda banquma ukuhlala esiqhingini kunokubuyela Engilandi, okwakungenzeka batakulwe bangatakulwa futhi wumkhumbi wamaDutch noma wama Potukisi. Laba abanye abathathu bakhetha ukubhekana nesenzo sabo le emumva ekhaya, ababuyela nebala ekhaya bagibela uNcibijane. Isikhathi sabo esiqhingini akukho esasikwenzile ukuguqula abafo, nokho, futhi nenkambo yamadoda atakulwa agibela uNcibijane kwathiwa ‘bangoskhotheni’ babevame ukugqonywa lakuhlala khona izimpahla kube yisijezo sabo. Kumahora ambalwa ekufikeni kwabo eNgilandi, laboskhotheni babe sebentshontshe isikhwama semali babe sebejeza ekulahlweni kwempela la abangabanga besaxolelwa.

Emva kwencithakalo yaMaNgisi emzamweni wawo okudla elaseKapa, Ama Europe ayeseqikelela ezifisweni zawo. Ngo 1652, owayengu dokotela emkhunjini owayebizwa ngo Jan Van Riebeeck wathunywa yi Dutch East India Company ukuba aqale inxiwa eliyoba elokugoba amadlangala unomphela eKapa. Inhloso yalendawo yokugoba amadlangala kwabe kungukusiza imikhumbi efika ime eKapa, ithole izithelo, izitshalo, amanzi nenyama, entsha konke ngenzuzo enhle. Ukwenza konke lokhu kwakubiza ukuba abafo laba abasha balime amasimu ezitshalo, benze izingxoxo nama Khoikhoi nangezinkomo nezimvu.

iRobben Island Ngaphansi Kokuphathwa Umbuso WamaDutch

©Roger de la Harpe
AmaDutch ayengadlali ngalombono wawo futhi achitha izinyanga ukulungiselela yonke into. Esikhathini esabe sesifanele, yayisuka imikhumbi emithathu, ithwele amadoda awu 150 nabesifazane abambalwa ukuyophila ngokokuqala eKapa. Lokho kwabe kuyisiqalo sensumansumansumane enkulu yeNingizimu Afrika eyayizothatha amakhulu amathathu eminyaka. iRobben Island yayenza imisebenzi ehlukahlukene eminyakeni futhi kwabe kuyindawo ewusizo kubafo bama-Dutch. Babenza izikhawu zokuyozivunela openguin nonogwaja bolwandle nezilwane eziningi zasendle (ezazichazwa ubuningi bazo njengesimanga sobuhle) zazigcwele yonke indawo, okwagcina ngokusungulekeka kwenqubo yezemvelo ngokokuqala eNingizimu Afrika. Leyonqubo yayithi labonogwaja bolwandle no penguin bangabanjwa kuphela ngemvume. Ekuphoqeni lomthetho, kwathunywa abaqaphi esiqhingini, nabelusi babekwa khona ukuvikelwa lomhlanjana wezimvu nezimbuzi kubagwedli abangabe bexinwe yiphango abangeba lezilwane, ngalokho okuvimbela ukukhokha kakhulu ngezidingo endaweni yokugoba amadlangala eTable Bay.

Emva Kweminyaka Elishumi

©Johan Boshoff
Ngo 1654, ngesikhathi umhlambi wanda, amadoda ambalwa athunywa esiqhingini ukwakha uphahla atshale izithelo. Kwaphinde kwatholakala amagobolondo amaningi ezimbaza khona la esiqhingini, ayesetshenziswa ukwakha i –‘lime’ ne sleti se Malmesbury savukuzwa.

Iziboshwa eziyiqeqebana zalayishwa ngokusemthethweni zaya ngo 1657 zafukuziswa ukugweda zimbe lelistshe, elasetshenziswa ukwakha imizi nemigwaqo emihle yedolobha laseKapa. Leliqeqeba labathunjwa nezigqila lenza kwanganela isikali sezinkabi zabafo, nokho futhi enye inkinga lenkampani yayixakwe wukungatholi izinduna zeqophelo ezazikwazi ukuphila esiqhingini esigagadekile. Indlala nokugula kwahlasela labahlali bokuqala, kodwa imfuyo yona yachuma, okwathi, ngo 1666, isiqhingi sachuma ngezimvu eziwu 350 esabe sesinazo, izingulube ezi 30 nabantu aba 25 (okubandakanya nabagwetshiwe). Eminyakeni elishumi emva kwalokho kwase kunezeleke izimvu ezi 300 nezinkomo ezi 100.

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema