Amalanga Wokuthome e-Robben Island

Ukusetjenziswa kwe-Robben Island ma-Europeans

©Roger de la Harpe
Ekuthomeni IRobben Island gade isetjenziswa ma-Europeans, njengestobho esibalulekileko sabatjhayeli bemikhumbi lokha nabaya ePumalanga. Akunabufakazi obotjengisa bona abantu bokudabuka eKapa bakhe bazihlupha ukukhamba ngemikhumbi baye e-Robben Island. Ama-Europeans gade ahlala ajama eshlengelenesi bavune ama-seals kanye namapenguins begodu amarekhodi atjengisa bona abakhambi ngemikhumbi gade balima ama-penguins angaba yi-1100 ngelanga linye. Njengombana ibizo le-island le libuya ebizweni lesi Dutch i- ‘Robbe’ elitjho bona i-seal.

Ekuthomeni umsebenzi weRobben Island kwakukubeka ukudla kwama bakhambi ngelwandle be European Kusukela ngonyaka ka-1600 kuya phezulu, ama-European athoma ukusebenzisa isihlengelesi njengeposo, batjhiya iincwadi kanye namarepoti ngaphasi kwamatje ameregwe kuhle njenge-post office batjhiyela abanye abatjhayeli bemikhumbi egade basebenza nabo.

Iinsalela Zomkhumbi Ekugcineni Kwelwandle e-Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Amalwandle egade azombeleze i-island gade abukhali, okwenza umraro lo ubhoke khulu, island le gade izombelezwe mamatje agade ayivalele agade asemanzini ahlaza satjani. Hlanganisa lokho nemimoya emimbi nekungu efika e-Antlatic, awa gade kuyiresibhu yemikhumbi ecwilileko eminengi. Nanyana gade basebenzisa amalege aphezu kwentaba ukukhanyisa (esele abizwa Minto Hill), kungaba nentokana ezingadlula eziyi-30 zemikhumbi esele zirikhodiwe ezatholwa lapha. Eminengi yayo yatjhayisana ngaphambi kokobana kwakhiwe ilekghelo ngonyaka ka-1863. kodwana eminye imikhumbi isaragela phambili nokuminza khona e-island. Etjonanalanga ye-Robben Island kunesalela zemikhubi engaba mithathu eminze kungasikade, yoke esele irusela ematjeni.

I-Britain e-Cape of Good Hope

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngonyaka ka-1602 kwatlanywa ikampani ebizwa–the Dutch East India Company (e-Dutch:Vereenigde Oost-Indissche Compagnie, nanyana i–VOC, eHolland i-coporation nekwabe yikampani yokuthoma engatholokali nanyana kukuphi ephasini bakwenza kwabamsebenzi wabo ukugada nokulawula indlela eya ePumalanga. Ukutlhogomela ikghwebeli,ikampani ye VOC yathoma yafunisisa ikghonakalo yokobana bahlalele futhi endaweni ye Cape of Good Hope,ehlezi hlangana ne-Old World kanye ne New World. Nekukulapho isahlezi khona namhlanje. Nanyana kunjalo kuthiwa abantwaba bathoma beza eKapa kokuthoma ngonyaka ka-1614. i-British East India Company yayineqhinga lokobana ibeke imbotjhwa eKapa. Ngemva kwalokho bakhetha iimbotjhwa eziyi-18 kuya ku-19 ezimadoda zathunyelwa eKapa. Kwakusitlhopha sokuthoma sembotjhwa ezathuthelwa khona ekwagcina sele kuyihlala yenzeka.

Isitlhopha sokuthoma sabantu be-Britain ebefika endaweni yabathwa/Khoikhoi beKapa kwarholela ekutheni kubenerarano lapha amadoda ambalwa abulawa nanyana alimala khona Lokhu kwaqhazwa njengokungazwisisisani kwama, Xhore ebekafuna ukwazi bona kungebanga lani abantu ababuya e-Britain labo batjhiye abantu bekhabo ngemva bazokuhlala enarhenini yabathwa/-khoikhoi. Wazinikela ukurhelebha abahlalabo kwaphela nangabe i-England izomsekela epini yendlanga zenarha. Isikhathi esincani ngemva kwalapho, kwaba nokurarana okukhulu hlangana nabafiki ababuya e-Britain kanye nabantu bama-Xhore ebebavele bahlala lapho, lokhu kwakatelela abantu abamhlophe bona beqele emikhunjini yabo emincani babaleke e-Robben Island.

I-Refreshment Station Yasafuthi

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngemva kokulinga ukubalamulela, abasindileko abathathu bathatha isiqunto sokobana basale eshlengeleni kunokubuyela e-England, kungenzeka bona bebasindiswe nanyana bangakasindiswa mikhumbi-yamaDutch namkhana yama-Portuguese ship. Abathathwaba bakhetha ukujamelana nomrarwabo emuva ekhaya babuyela khona njengesipho sikanuwejara. Isikhathi abasiqhithe esihlengelenesi besingakenzi litho ukutjhugulula abahlali balapho. Ukuziphatha kwamadoda abawasindisako emkhunjini obizwa isphiwo kwamenyezelwa bona kwakukumbi khulu nokwenza bona baphanitjhiwe. Lingakabethi ne-iri bafikile e-England iinlelesi ezingalungisekikwezo gade sele zebe isipatjhi begodu babulawa ngesenzo sabesi esenza nokobana baqothwe bangaqolelwa.

Ngemva kokobana alinge abhalelwa amangisi ukuhlala eKapa, ama-Europeans gade azimisele khulu ukwenza lokho. Ngonyaka ka-1652, udokgodere womkhumbi ebekabizwa bona ngu Jan Van Riebeeck wathunyelwa e-Dutch East India ukubona azokutlama i-refreshment Sation asafuthi eKapa. Umngcopho wekhgwebeli kwakukutlama i-Refreshment station leyo kwakukunikela ngenthelo, nemirorho efretjhi kanye namanzi nenyama bene inzalo ehle. Ukwenza lokho abahlali abatjha bekufanele batjale iingadi, bekhulumisane nabahlali ababathwa kobana babanikele izimvu nenkomo.

I-Robben Island Ngaphasi Kwakarhulumende wama-Dutch

©Roger de la Harpe
Ama-Dutch kade azimisele ngomsebenzawo, bathatha iinyanga balungisa yoke into. Ngesikhathi esilungileko, kweza imikhumbi emithathu ephethe amadoda ama-150 epilweni etja eKapa. Kwakuzoba sithomo se-drama yeSewula Africa ayaragela phambili ama-century amathathu nencenye ebahlalini bama-Dutch. Benza iskhathi sokuvakatjha nokuvunwa kwama-seals nama-penguins nokuphela kwenlwane zemvelo. Ekwarholela bona kuthonywe umthetho wokuthoma wokutlhogonyelwa kwenlwana eSewula Africa.

Umthetho lo wawuthi ama-seals nama-penguins angavunwa ngemvume kwaphela. Ukuqiniseka bona uyalandelwa umthetho lo, kwabekwa umbonisi esihlengelenesi, abelusi babekwa ukobana bavikele iimihlambi emincani yezimvu kanye nembuzi ebakhambini bemikhumbi ebalambileko ebebangazeba, ngombana bangafuni ukuzithenga e-Refreshment station ese-Table Bay.

Iminyaka Elisumi Ngemva Kwalokho

©Johan Boshoff
Ngonyaka ka-1654, iinthelo nazikhulako, kwathunyelwa amadoda ambalwa eshlengeleni bona ayokwakha imithunzi, batjale nengadi zemirorho. Kwatholwa namaqephe welwandle amanengi egade angasetjenziselwa ukwenza i-lime. Kwatholwa ne-limestone kanye ne-Malmesbury slate.

Iwoma lokuthoma elisemthethweni lembotjhwa lathunyelwa eshlengeleni ngonyaka ka-1657 lasetjenziswa egwarini, eyayisetjenziswa ukwakha izindlu nendlela zeKapa. Iwomeli lemarhoba nabakhambi latjengisa ukungabanelisi lokha nalisebenza lilodwa, nanyana kunjalo ikampani gade inobudisi obufanako ekutholeni ababonisi abanggahlali endaweni ekude kangaka. Amalwelwe nendlala kwahlasela abahlali abathoma ukuhlala lapho, kodwana ivuyo yona yaba yihle,ngonyaka ka-1666, ishlengelesi kade sesinezimvu ezima-350, iinkomo ezima-10, iimbuzi ezima-40, nemfaragi ezima-30 kanye nabantu abayi-25 (ekubalwa nembotjhwa ezima-14) Iminyaka elisumi eyalandela lapho, gade kunezimvu eziyi-300 kanye nenkomo eziyi-100.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe