Masiku Yosungula ya Robben Island

The Europeans use of Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Robben Island ayi tirhisiwa hi vanhu vale Europe ekusunguleni, tani hi ndzhawu ya vuwiselo eka vatluti va swikepe lava vatwaka ndlala loko vari endleleni yoya e East. Kuna vumbhoni byintsongo ngopfu lebyi hlamuselaka leswaku himpela vanhu vale Cape ava tluta elwandle kuya exihlaleni lexi. Vanhu va Europe ava tshama varikarhi vawisa exihlaleni naswona ava kota kukuma swakudya xikanwe na ti seals nati penguins, laha kuya hi vumbhoni kuvikiwa leswaku vatluti lava ava kuma kwalomu ka 1100 wati penguins hi siku rinwe. Himpela, vito ra xihlala lexi xihuma eka rito ra xi Dutch ‘Robbe’, leswivulaka xipfalo’.

Ntirho wosungula wa Robben Island akuri ndzhawu ya vuhlayiselo eka vatluti vale Europe. Kusukela hi malembe yava 1600 kuya emahlweni, va-Europe ava tirhisa xihlala lexi tani hi poso ya vona ya mapapila, laha ava siya mapapila ehansi ka maribye lawa ya hlawuriweke, leswaku vatluti vanwana vata hundza va ya teka kuya hundzisela laha ya faneleke kuya kona. Kutlhela kuva na swiviko swaleswaku kuna vatluti lava nga feriwa hi xikepe laha ava boheka kutshama kona kuringana tinhweti varindzele kupfuniwa.

Swikepe Leswi nga fa e Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Lwandle ekusuhi na xihlala ritala ku hlupha swinene, kutikisa xiyimo hileswaku xihlala lexi xirhandzeriwe hi maribye lawa yakulu swinene lawa ya hundzelaka nale ka mati ya rihlaza. Loko swikatsana na moya wa matimba na gamboko lerisukaka e lwandle ra Atlantic, leswi hinkwaswo swikunyika nhlayo yale henhla swinene ya swikepe leswinga fa. Hambi leswi ava rhandza kutshivela ndzilo ehenhla ka Fire Hill (leyi sweswi vange i Minto Hill), kwalomu ka kutlula 30 wa swikepe leswinga fa switsarisiwile endzhawini liya. Kwalomu ka mbirhi eka nharhu wa swikepe swifayekile eka ndzhawu leyi loko kunga se akiwa lighthouse leyi akiweke hi 1863, kambe swikepe aswiya emahlweni swihlamarisiwa hi xihlala lexi. Ribuwa rale nwalungwini wa xihlala lexi xa Robben Island kuna masalela yoringana swikepe swinharhu leswinga fela kona leswi se swingo rhosa e maribyeni lawa.

Britain e Cape of Good Hope

©Roger de la Harpe
Hi lembe ra 1602, Dutch East India Company (hixi Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, kumbe VOC) yisunguriwile e Holland, leswi switise khoporexini leyintsongo (the first limited stock company in the world) vlaha vanga swiendla ntirho wavona kukuma vulawuri eka ndlela yoya evuhuma dyambu. Ku seketela bindzu leri, va VOC vasungule kulavisisa loko kuriku swinga koteka kuva na va Europa minkarhi hinkwayo e Cape of Good Hope, leyinga tshama exikarhi ka Old World na New World. Lexi i xiyimo lexi vangana xona na namuntlha kuya hi swendlo na himisava. Hambiswiritano lava vaphikizanaka navona va fike e Cape kusungula. Hi 1614, va British East India Company vakunguhate kuveka 100 wa vabohiwa e Cape. Ekuheteleleni nkatsakanyo wa 18 kumbe 19 wa vavanuna ava hlawuriwile kuya e Cape ematshanwini yaku vaya dlawa tani hi swigevenga. Avari ntlawa wosungula wa vabohiwa kuva vafambisiwa, maendlelo lawa eku heteleleni yanga vuya ya toloveleka laha swinga vuya switekeleriwa hi rixaka ra Australia lava ava tsakela swinene ku kopela.

Kuyimeriwa ka rixaka ra ma Khoikhoi vale Cape loku aku rhangeriwe hi ma Britain, eka Xhore swihetelele swivanga leswaku vavanuna votala va dlayiwa naku vavisiwa. Leswi aswihlamuseriwa tani hikuka kunga twananiwangi kahle hi Xhore, laha a lava kutiva leswaku xana hikokwala kayini ma-British vasiye vanhu leswaku vata tshama eka misava ya ma Khoikhoi. U tinyiketele ku phuna vahlampfa ntsena loko kuriku tiko ra England ritan’wi seketela eka ntlimbo lowu arina wona na tinxaka tinwana. Endzhaku ka nkarhi nyana wokoma, kuve na kulwisana lokukulu exikarhi ka khale ka vahlampfa na vanhu va Xhore, naswona leswi swinedle leswaku valungu vanghena exikepeni vatsutsumela e Robben Island.

Ndzhawu yo Timula Torha ya Nkarhi Hinkwawo

©Roger de la Harpe
Endzhaku kaloko kupfuneta kunga fambangi kahle, lava vanga pona vanharhu vavuye vatshama kona exihlaleni kutlula kutlhelela e England, naswona vangava vangaha pfuniwanga hi xikepe xa Dutch kumbe Portuguese. Lava vanharhu vatibyele leswaku swa fana vana nandzu loko vatlhelela ekaya kutani vakhandziya xikepe xa New Year’s Gift. Nkarhi wavona exihlaleni awunga vuli nchumu eka kuva wu cinca vahlampfa, hambi swiritano, matikhomelo yavona exikepeni xa Gift ayanga amukeleki leswinga endla leswaku vapfa va panichiwa endleleni. Endzhaku ka tiawara loko vafikile e England, swigevenga leswi aswi tsandzile kucinca aswiyive xipaci naswona vavuye va dlawa endzhaku ka sweswo hikuva se ava yirisiwile naswona avanga rivaleriwanga milandzu ya vona.”

Endzhaku ka kutsandzeka kuya tshama e Cape hi manghezi (English), ma European vona avari na vurhonwanni swinene eka kunavela ka vona. Hi 1652, khale ka dokodela wa swikepe loyi a tivekaka hi Jan Van Riebeeck u rhumeriwile hi Dutch East India Company kuta lava xitichi xa nkarhi hinkwawo xotimula torha e Cape. Xikongomelo xa bindzu leri akuri ku phakela swikepe leswi yimaka e Cape hi mihandzu ya furexe, matsavu, mati na nyama; hinkwaswo leswi aswitava vuyerisa. Ku endla leswi, aswivula leswaku, vahlampfa lava vafanele ku rima masimu ya matsavu xikanwe naku burisana na rixaka ra ma Khoikhoi kuva vakuma tihomu na tinyimpfu.

Robben Island Ehansi ka Mfumo wa Dutch

©Roger de la Harpe
Ma-Dutch ava tiyimiserile swinene eka xikongomelo xa vona naswona vateke tinwheti vari eku lulamiseni. Hinkarhi walowo, swikepe swinharhu aswiri ekutluteni swirhwele vavanuna va 150 na nhlayo yintsongo ya vavasati lava ava tiyimisele kuya sungula vutomi byintshwa e Cape. Lawa akuri masungulo ya ntlimbo lowukulu wa Afrika Dzonga lowu awuta heta ti century ti nharhu na hafu. Robben Island ayi endla swotala kuringana malembe yotala naswona ayiri ndzhawu leyi ayi tirhiseka eka vahlampfa va Dutch.

Ava tsamela kuya tshovela ti seals nati penguin, xikanwe na kuya phanga swihadyani swale nhoveni leswi aswitele swinene, leswi swiendle leswaku kuva na milawu leyi langutaka nhlayiso wa swiharhi e Afrika Dzonga. Leswi swiendle leswaku milawu yivula ku kukhomiwa ka ti penguin nati seal swita endliwa loko munhu ari na mpfumelelo. Ku tiyisisa leswaku leswi swa humelela, kuvile na mulanguteri loyi anga rhumeriwa eka xihlala lexiya, kasi varisi varhumeriwile kuya sirhelela mintlhambi leyintsongo ya tinyimpfu na timbuti ehenhla ka vatluti lava avari na ndlala lava avata yiva swiharhi leswi, leswi swiendle leswaku vaboheka ku hakela ntsengo loko vaxava switimula torha e Table Bay.

Khume ra Malembe Endzhaku

©Johan Boshoff
Hi 1654, loko ntlhambi wurikarhi wukula, vavanuna vohlaya varhumeriwile kuya aka vutumbelo xikanwe naku byala matsavu eswirhapeni. Nhlayo yikulu swinene yati sea-shells natona tikumekile exihlaleni, leti atita tirhisiwa ku endla lime, na maribye lawa ya vonakaka ya limestone yakahle xikanwe na Malmesbury slate swivuye swikumeka. Ntlawa wosungula wa vabohiwa lavanga rhumeriwa exihlaleni hi 1657 laha ava tirhisiwa kucela maribye, lawa aya tirhisiwa ku cela maribye lawa aya tirhisiwa ku aka mapatu na tiyindlu tale dorobeni ra Cape Town.

Ntlawa lowu wa mahlonga na lavanga evuchavela whawha avanga tikombi vari ntlawa lowu tsakisaka wa vatirhi, naswona Company ayiri na ntlimbo waleswaku ayikumi vanhu lavanga tiyimisela kuva valanguteri lava avata kota kuya tshama eka ndzhawu leyingale kule na swilo. Mavabyi na ndlala swihlasele vanhu llava vanga sungula kutshama eka ndzhawu leyi, kambe swifuwo aswi hanya kahle naku nona, hi 1666, xihlala lexi axiri na kwalomu ka 350 wa tinyimpfu, 10 wa tihomu, 40 wa timbuti, 30 wa tinguluve kukatsa na 25 wa vanhu (kukatsa na 14 wa swivochwa). Endzhaku ka khume ra malembe, akuri na kutlula 300 wa tinyimpfu na 1000 wa tihomu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni