Emalanga Ekucala Ase Robben Island

Bantfu Bangaphesheya Kwetilwandle Bebayi Sebentiselani i Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Robben Island yacalwa ngokusebentiswa bahambi laba dzabuka eveni lase (Europe), labebafike batfole ukungcebeleka khona mangabe balambile. Betingekho tinkhomba tekutsi badzabuki bakuyo iKapa bebanga sondzela kule ndzawo.

Labahambi beba fike beme kuyo iRobben Island, badwebe ema dolofini kanye netinyoni tase lwandle. Imitsebulo ikhomva kutsi labadwebi beba tinhlanti leti 11 00 ngelilanga leli lodva. Liciniso, ligama layo lendzawo lisuka kusive sema (Dutch), njengoba lisho kutsi "Robbe" lochaza tona tinyoni tase lwandle.

iRobben Island beku kadze kuyindzawo ye (European Sea-Fares). Kusuka ku 1600 kuya embhili, bantfu bekuhamba beba sebentsisa lendzawo njenge ndzawo yekufaka tincwadzi noma timphepha tekuchumana. Kakhulukati kuchumana mangabe kunabashayeli noma badwebi labasengotini. Kunetincwadzi letikhomba kutsi kune badwebi laba coshwa kule ndzawo batjelwa kutsi batfutse ngaleso sikhatsi.

Tikorokoro Temi Khumbi e Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Emagagasi kulendzawo beka namandla kakhulu, loko bekwenta tintfo tibe ndzima kakhulu ngoba beyiphindze igegwe tintsaba noma emadvala lasabisako, lahamba aze afike nakulamanti lalu hlata ngombala. Hlanganisa konkhe loku kanye netivunguvungu, tinkhungu letihlangene futsi, kuphindze kugcwale imikhumbi lemoshakele khona lapho. Noma beba khanyisa ekugcineni kwe ntsaba, leyibitwa ngekutsi i (Minto Hill).

Imikhumbi lefika emashumini lamatsatfu lemoshekile yatsetjulwa kuyo lendzawo labeyi bekwe khona esigangeni. Kwahamba sikhatsi lesidze kuteb kwakhiwe sakhiwo sokucala ngomnyaka wango 1863, kodva bashayeli bemikhumbi basa mangatwa yilendzawo, kantsi nendzawo lenga senhla kwe Robben Island, ine mikhumbi lemoshekile lemitsatfu, yonkhe ibolela lematjeni.

Britain ita eKapa Ngelitsemba Lelihle

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngomnyaka wango 1602, inkapane leyayi bitwa nge (Dutch East India Compony) ngesi (Dutch: Vereenigde OostIndische Compagnie) noma iVOC, yasungulwa eveni lase Holland, loku bekudzinga kubambisana. Inkapane yokucala emhlabeni yabambisana kwenta siciniseko sekuhlolisisa ngase ntjonalanga. iVOC yacala yaphenyisisa kutsi kungakhiwa yini sakhiwo sase Europe kuyo lendzawo ledaleke kahle futsi ebalulekile kanye netsamna eliletsako, yakhelwe emhlabatsini lomdzala nalo musha.

Lesi sihlalo lendzawo lesibambile nanamuhla, ngokwendalo nangekuma kwe mhlaba, kodva titsa tabo tafika kucala eKapa. Ngonyaka wango 1642, i (British East India Company) yahloma kubamba bavalele basolwa labatinkhulungwane eKapa. Madvutane emadvodza lali shumi nesiphohlongo noma lalishumi nesigoba galo lunye, atfunyelwa khona kunekutsi ayohengiwa abulawe. Bekuti boshwa tekucala letatfunyelwa kulendzawo, sento lesase siyavama kantsi sitofika kubantfu base Australia lababe hlushwa indzondo nekungacoli noma kukwata.

Licembu lokucala lebameli labeba suka eBritish kuya endzaweni yema Khoikhoi lese Kapa, iXhore, yabangela imphi lencane nokungevani lokwa bangela kulimala nekushona kwe madvodza lambalwa. Loku kwachazwa njengeliphutsa nekungavani kahle, kuchaza Xhore lobekafuna kwati kutsi batfutse leni eveni labo bashiya tihlobo kutowakha eveni lema Khoikhoi.

Watsembisa kwamukela bahambi mangabe iNgilandi itomsita kusekela kulamanye emacembu laphikisana nawo. Emuva kwesikhatsi lesincane kwaba nencabano lenkhulu emkhatsini weba hambi kanye nebantfu baXhore, loku kwabangela nkutsi lamadvodza lamhlophe angene emikhunjini yabo acondze eRobben Island.

Siteshi Sokuphumula

©Roger de la Harpe
Emuva kokubaleka ejele lokungazange kuphumelela, labatsatfu labasindza babona kutsi kuncono kutsi bahlale khona la (Island) kunokutsi babuyele eNgilandi, ngoba bekungenteka kutsi abaka khululwa ema Dutch noma emaphoyisa. Labanye labatsatfu babona kutsi kuncono kutsi babuyele ekhaya, sikhatsi sabo eRobben Island azange sibasite ngalutfo kubakha kabusha, futsi noku tiphatsa kwabo emkhunjini bekungatfokotisi.

Baze bagacwa tinhloko kanye netandla njenge sigwebo. Emuva kwekutsi behlele khona eNgilandi, leti gebengu leti beseti vele tintjontje nesi patji, ngenca yaleso sento sabo babavala kutsi bangene eveni labo bacoshwa kanjalo. Emuva kwesikhatsi sokutsi iNgilandi izame kutsatsa iKapa, Live le Europe baselinesi ncumo kanye nemfutfo ngeliphupho layo.

Ngomnyaka wango 1652, sayitjeni lobekasa beke tintsambo phansi,wemikhumbi, lobekatiwa ngekutsi ngu Jan Van Riebeck watfunyelwa yi (Dutch East India Compony) kutsi ete kutosungula sakhiwo sesiphumulo eKapa. Umbono wale bhizinisi bekuku layisha titselo letidliwako letinemsoco kanye nemifino, emanti kanye nenyama. Kute bente loku bahlalin bekumele bacale bente ingadze yetitselo, bacocisane nema Khoikhoi ngeti Nkhomo kanye Netimvu.

Robben Island Ibuswa Ngama Dutch

©Roger de la Harpe
Ema Dutch beseka timisele ngembono wabo. Kwaphela tinyanga bamatasa benta emalungiselelo. Ngaleso sikhatsi bekungena imikhumbi lemitsatfu itfele 150 wemadvodza nebantfu besisikati labambalwa kuto cala imphilo lesha endzaweni yase Kapa. Bekusicalo se South Africa lenetigigaba letitochuba sikhatsi lesingange tigaba teminyaka lemitsatfu nesigamu. iRobben Island yasita kakhulu kuphumelelisa lokuningi eminyakeni lebe yendlulile, futsi kuyindzawo yekuhlala emaDutch.

Beba vakasha ngesikhatsi lesitsite kutobamba tinhlanti nema phengwini, kantsi batele nemvelo, leyachazwa njenge simanga lesihle, kwabangela imitsetfo leyabekwa yekugwema letinye tetintfo eSouth Africa. Umtsetfo watsi letinyoni tasemantini ngeke tisabanjwa ngaphandle kwesivumelwano lesi bhalwe phansi. Kwenta siciniseko sekutsi lomtsetfo uyahlonishwa, kwabekwa totawu gadza, kwabekwa nemfuyo yetimvu netimbuti lebetidzinga kugadzwa kuze tingantjontjwa badwebi noma bashayeli laba lambile.

Emuva Kweminyaka Lelishumi

©Johan Boshoff
Ngomnyaka wango 1654, imfuyo iloku ikhula, emadvodza lambalwa atfunyelwa kuyo iIsland kutsi ayowakha indzawo yeku khusela kanye nensimu yetitselo nemifino. Kwatfolakala netigwabugwabu teti lwanyane tase lawandle kulendzawo, lebetinga sebentiswa kukhicita imphuphu yasemende kanye namanyolo, ematje kanye nema puleti.

Licembu lokucala kuboshelwa kuyo le Island lachubelwa khona ngemnyaka wango 1657, bafakwa emsebentini woku gubha lona lelitje, lela sebentiswa kwakha tindlu nemigwaco yale dolobha leli khulako lase Kapa. Lelicembu letiboshwa kanye netigcila lakhomba kutsi alizange liceceshelwa lomsebenti, kantsi nenkapane nayo yayinenkinga, ifuna kuchaswa ngabantfu base veni labo, lebeba boni ngeliso linye ngekuhlala kwabo kulendzawo.

Tifo kanye nendlala yabamba labahlali bekucala kodva imfuyo yakhula, ngomnyaka wango 1666 beyina 350 wetimvu, lishumi lelinkhomo, emashumi lamane etimbuti, emashumi lamatsatfu etingulube kanye nebantfu labamashumi lamabili nesihlanu, kuhlanganiswa netiboshwa leti lishumi nesine. Emuva kweminyaka lelishumi, bekune timvu letendlula likhulu lelitsatfu kanye netinkhulungwane tesigidzi setinkhomo.

Translated by Thandokuhle Motha