Maduvha a u Thoma a Robben Island

Vhathu Vhano bva Europe vha Shumisa ipfi ‘Robben island’

©Roger de la Harpe
Robben Island ho thoma u shumiswa nga vhathu vha ubva Europe nga nḓowelo vho ima nga nḓila vha tshi khou rea khovhe vha tshi bva devhula. Huna vhuṱanzi vhuṱuku ha u sumbedza uri vhathu vhane vha bva cape vho vhuya vha kwamea nga u dzula tshiṱangadzimeni tsho omaho tsini na lwanzhe. Vha Europeans kanzhi vho vha vha tshi ima tshiṱangadzimeni vha na zwithu zwinzhi zwine zwa khou dzhena tshikepeni na dzi penguins, na hone zwo nwaliwaho zwi khou sumbedza uri vho vha vha tshi nga zwima penguins dza 1100 nga ḓuvha ḽithihi. Ndi zwavhukuma dzina ḽa tshi ṱangadzime ḽi bva kha vhathu vha Dutch ‘Robbe’ zwine zwa amba seal.

Robben Island mushumo waho wa u thoma ho vha hu u vhea zwithu kana zwithu zwa u fasha khovhe zwa ma European. Ubva nga 1600 uya phanḓa vha European vho vha vha tshi hu shumisa sa posoni i sihoho mulayoni, vha tshi sia marifhi na mvelelo fhethu ho khetheaho hune tshikepe tshine tsha khou ḓa tsha ḓo kona u huḓivha. Hu dovha havha na mvelelo dzo vhalaho dza vharei vha khovhe vhe vha ḓo kombetshedzwa u dzula tshiṱangadzimeni lwa minwedzi vha tshi khou lindela u thusiwa.

Vha rei vha Khovhe Mathomoni a Lwanzhe lwa Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Lwanzhe lune lwa vha tsini na tshiṱangadzime lwo khwaṱha lwa tshiṱuhu nahone u engedza mafhungo, tshiṱangadzime tsho tingiwa nga matombo ano hofhisa ane o ṱanḓavhuwela kha maḓi madala. Ho ṱangana na muya muhulwane na khuli yo vhumbanaho zwine zwa kona u fhela zwi tshi khou yela Atlantic, ha dovha ha vha na vhuṱanzi ha grand scale kha vha rei vha khovhe. Naho vho shumisa mulilo usa tou vha ho munzhi uri vha kone u vhonala nnṱha ha tshikwara tshine zwino tsha vhidzwa upfi Minto Hill, vha rei vha khovhe vho no swika ndi vhone vho ṅwaliwaho fhasi. Zwinzhi hezwi zwo itea hu saathu fhatiwa Lighthouse nga 1863, fhedzi zwikepe zwo vha zwi tshi dzula zwi tshi khou mangadziwa nga tshiṱangadzime. Vhubvaḓuvha ha Robben Island vho thusa vhe vha vha vho sala vhararu vha u rea khovhe zwazwino, vhoṱhe vha tshi khou ṱuwa hune havha na matombo.

Vha Britain kha ḽa Cape Hune Havha na Fulufhelo

©Roger de la Harpe
Nga 1602, vha Dutch East India Company (inDutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, kana VOC) ho tumbuliwa Holland, hezwi zwa amba u shumisana zwiṱuku (company ya u tou thoma ya zwiṱoko kha ḽifhasi) vho zwiitwa mushumo wavho muhulwane wa u kona u wana nḓila ya East. U tikedza hoyu mushumo, vha VOC vha thoma u ita thoḓuluso dza khonadzeo dza u kona u hulisa uri vha European vha vhe hone lwa tshoṱhe kha nḓila ya ndeme kha vha Cape of Good Hope, hune ha fha vhukati kha vha Old World na the New World.

Vhuimo hovhu hu kha ḓi vha ho tou ralo na ṋamusi, zwoṱhe zwa mvelo na zwithu zwine zwa vha zwavhuḓi. Naho zworalo, hezwi zwa phambano zwo thoma kha vha Cape. Nga 1614, vha British East India Company vho langana u tshidza vhathu vha 100 vha vha fariwa kha ḽa Cape. Zwi tshi khou ḓi ralo vhanna vhano swika 18 kana 19 vho mbo ḓi ṋangiwa vha iswa Cape. Ho vha tshigwada tsha u thoma tsha vhafariwa vhe vha ḓo tshimbidzwa zwe nga murahu zwa fhedza zwo no vha nḓowelo nahone zwa fhedzisela zwo tou ralo kha lushaka lwa Australian (vhe vha ḓo tambudzwa nga vivho).

Muthu wa u tou thoma wa Crosse-led British a mbo ḓi ya kha lushaka lwa Khoikhoi Cape, Xhore, zwe zwa ḓo sia huna hu tshi khou vhulahiwa vhanna vhanzhi na u huvhadziwa. Hezwi zwo ṱalutshedziwa sa usa pfesesana nga Xhore, we avha atshi khou ṱoḓa uḓivha uri ndi ngani vha British vho sia vhathu murahu vha tshi khou tshila kha shango ḽa Khoikhoi. Ari u ḓo thusa vhadzulapo arali vha England vha tshi ḓo mutikedza kha dzi khakhathi dza vhaṋe vha shango. Nga murahu ha tshifhinga tshiṱuku ha mbo ḓi vha na dzi nndwa dzi shushaho vhukati ha vhadzulapo vha kale na vhathu vha Xhore, hezwi zwo ḓo ita uri vhanna vha vha tshena vha ṋamela zwikepe zwavho zwiṱuku vha ye Robben Island.

Fhethu ha Tshoṱhe ha u Homolosa

©Roger de la Harpe
Nga murahu ha musi zwa u tshidza zwo bala, vhathu vhararu vhe vha ḓo ponya vha ḓi vhudza uri vha ḓo dzula tshiṱangadzimeni u fhirisa u humela England uya u tambula, naho vha kha ḓi, kana vha sa tshidziwe nga vha zwikepe zwa Dutch kana Portuguese. Havha vhanwe vhararu vha ṋanga u ṱangana na zwothe murahu hayani vha ṱuwa vha ya vha ya u ṋamela New Year’s Gift. Tshifhinga tshavho tsha musi vha tshiṱangadzimeni atshi ngo khakhisa vhadzuli, naho zworalo, maitele a vhanna vhane vho tshidziwa ho mbo ḓi ambiwa uri vha vho ṋamedzwa tshikepe hu u lifha mulandu. Hu tshi tou fhedza dzi awara dza musi vho swika England, zwigevhenga zwo mbo ḓi tswa phese na hone vha “humiselwa kha tshigwevho tshavho tsha murahu, vha shakuliswa, vha si farelwe.”

Nga murahu ha musi vha English vha tshi khou lingedza u dzula Cape, vha Europeans vho vha vha na uḓi funga kha zwithu zwavho. Nga 1652, surgeon wa zwikepe wa kale ano pfi Jan Van Riebeeck a runwa nga vha Dutch East India Company u ṱola vhathu ha u homolosa ha tshothe Cape. Muhumbulo muhulwane wa madalo haya ho vha hu u fha zwikepe zwine zwa ima Cape mitshelo mitete, miroho, maḓi, na ṋama: zwoṱhe zwi tshi khou itelwa mutakalo. U ita hezwi, naho zworalo vhadzulapo vhaswa vha fanela u vha na ngade vha amba na vhathu vhane vha dzula henefho Khoikhoi nga mafhungo a kholomo na mbudzi.

Robben Island Fhasi ha Mulayo wa Dutch

©Roger de la Harpe
Vha Dutch vho vha vho ḓi vhudza kha zwithu zwavho vha fhedza minwedzi vha tshi khou lugisela zwithu zwoṱhe. Nga tshifhinga tsho teaho, zwikepe zwiraru zwa takuwa, zwo hwala vhanna vha 150 na vhafumkadzi vhaṱuku vha tshi khou ya kha vhutshilo havho vhuswa Cape. Ho vha hu mathomo a zwiito zwa Afrika Tshipembe zwe zwa ḓo fhedza tshifhinga tsho no lingana centuari tharu na hafu. Robben island ho isa zwithu zwi nzhi zwo fhambanaho lwa minwaha na hone ho vha fhethu hune ha vha na mushumo kha vhathu vha Dutch.

Vho vha vha na tshifhinga tshine vha ya vha tshi kaṋa dzi seals na penguins, na zwipuka zwa ḓaka (ho vhuya havha na mbalo ye ya ḓo ṱaluswa sa ‘u mangadza’) zwo vha zwo phaḓalala, zwa sia i tshi kha inwe ya dzi nyambedzano dza Afrika Tshipembe. Hezwi zwa amba uri zwithu zwa tshiṱangadzimeni seals na penguins azwi tsha kaṋiwa nga mulayo. Uti hoyu mulayo u shume, muthu wa u lavhesa o mbo ḓi rumiwa tshiṱangadzimeni, ha vhewa vhalisa uri dzi tsireledze danga ḽituku ḽa dzi nngu na mmbudzi kha vha reili vha zwikepe vhane vha vha na nḓala vhane vha nga tswa zwifuwo, vha tshi khou shavha u tou renga zwiḽiwa vhengeleni ḽa zwiḽiwa zwo bikiwaho Table Bay.

Nga Murahu ha Minwaha ya Fumi

©Johan Boshoff
Nga 1654, musi danga ḽi tshi khou hula, vhanna vhanwe vho mbo ḓi rumiwa tshiṱangadzimeni u fhaṱa madzulo na u ita ngade ya miroho. Ha wanala vhunzhi ha dzi khumba tshiṱangadzimeni, zwine zwa nga shuma u ita Lime, ha bva Limestone na Malmesbury zwe zwa tumbulwa. Tshigwada tsha u tou thoma tsha vhafariwa tsho iswa Robben island nga 1657 vha shuma u paka matombo, e a shuma u fhaṱa dzi nnḓu na dzi bada na dorobo Cape Town.

Lugwada holu lwa dzi phuli na vhathu vhane vha vha vha tshi khou bva vhuthubwani avho ngo sumbedza uri vha khou tou kombetshedziwa, naho zwo ralo, company yo vha na u konḓeliwa kha u wana muthu wa u lavhelesa ane a nga konḓelela u tshila fhethu ho laṱedzwaho. Malwadze na nḓala ndi zwone zwo tambudzaho vhathu vhe vha thoma u dzula hafha, fhedzi zwifuwo zwi tshi khou nona, nga vho 1666 tshiṱangadzimeni tsha vhuyelwa nga dzi nngu dzo no swika 350, kholomo dza 10, mbudzi dza 40, nguluvhe dza 30 na vhathu vha 25 (ho katelwa na vhafariwa vha 14). Nga murahu ha minwaha ya 10 ho vha ho no vha na nngu dza 300 na kholomo dza 1000.

Translated by Khalirendwe Nekhavhambe