Izimiso Eziyisisekelo Zokufuya Izinkomo zobisi

©Rykie Visser Agrinet
Abalimi abasha bezinkomo zobisi kufanele baqonde izimiso eziningana eziphathelene nokulima kanye nezinkomo. Lezi zimiso zichaza ukuthi kungani ukuphathwa okuqondile kudingekile ukuba kuqinisekiswe ukuthi ibhizinisi liqhuba kahle ngokwezimali. Ngenxa yokuthi izinkomo zobisi ziyingxenye yokukhiqiza imfuyo yobisi, izinkomo eziveza ubisi ebeleni ziyoba yizilwane zokuqala zokuthenga. Ngalendlela, ukugeleza kwemali ngokushesha kusuka ekuthengiseni ubisi.Umhlambi omuhle unamathole nenkomo ezomile ukuqinisekisa ukukhiqizwa okuqhubekayo nokukhula komhlambi.

Okuphathelane Nokugayekakokudla Kwezinkomo Zobisi

Izinkomo zobisi izilwane ezetshisayo futhi zibe nohlelo lokugaya ukudla oluhlukile. (Izilwane ezetshisayo - isb. Izinkomo, izimbuzi, izimvu - zidla futhi zigaye ukudla okuncike kwizitshalo njengotshani.)

Ukugaya kwenzeka esiswini esinamakamelo amane. Lokhu kwenza ukuba zisebenzise amafoliji, njengohhoyi, isayileji, amadlelo kanye notshani, okusho ukuthi ukudla okungavami ukudliwa ngabantu.

Isisu sesilwane esetshisayo esisendlini ezine siqukethe i-reticulum, i-rumen, i-omasum ne-abomasum. La makamelo amane asebenza njengeyunithi eyodwa. I-rumen yamalitha anggu-160 yenza i-80% yesisu sesilwane.

Ngokuyinhloko indawo yokubilisa ukudla equkethe izinqwaba zamabhaktheriya- anaerobic (amabhaktheriya ahlala lapho kungekho ioksijini), i-protozoa, nezinye izinto eziphilayo zihlala phakathi nenkomo zobisi. (I-Symbiosis iyindlela yokuxhumana phakathi kwezinhlobo ezimbili eziphilayo.) Lezi zilwane zigawula ukudla okudliwe, okunikeza amandla namaprotheni ezinkantini ukukhiqiza ubisi. Lapho amabhaktheriya efa kamuva ku-abomasum, usebenza njengeprotheni yenkomo.

I-rumen enempilo incike kufoliji eningi okwanele (utshani kusuka emadlelweni ) ekudleni kwansuku zonke. Kodwa-ke, ngoba amandla kanye namaprotheni okuqukethe ufoliji aphansi, ukudla okugxilisiwe okufana namabele (ummbila, ukolweni, ibhali noma ama - oats), kanye nemithombo yamaprotheni (ukudla kwesinkwa, isidlo sekhekhe noma ) sondliwa ukwandisa ubisi isivuno sezinkomo. Lezi zondla ngokuvamile zihlanganiswa namaminerali nosawoti enxenyeni yokugxila noma ukudla.

Ukukhiqizwa Kobisi Izinkomo

©Dr Carel Muller
Ukuze uqale isikhathi sokulahlwa (ukukhiqiza ubisi), izinkomo kufanele zihlalise (zibelethe). Amaduna (abesilisa) namathole (abesifazane) amathole azalwa kulokhu. Amathole ama-Bull ajwayele ukutholwa ngaphambi kokuphila ngenxa yenyama yawo (inyama yethole ihlukaniswa ngokuthi 'i-veal' lapho isisindo somzimba singama kg 100 noma ngaphansi) noma singakhula ngaphandle kokukhiqiza inyama yenkomo ngaphandle uma iphakanyiselwa ukuzalisa.

Amathole e-heifer ayadingeka ukuba athathe izinkomo ezithathwe emhlambini wezinkomo. Izilwane zikhuliswe ukuze zifinyelele ekutholeni i-calving yokuqala ezinyangeni ezingaba ngu-24 ubudala. Ukunciphisa iminyaka yokutholwa kokuqala kunciphisa izindleko zokukhulisa. Lezi zindleko zemfuyo ziphinde zitholakale ngesikhathi sezinkampani zokukhiqiza ubisi ezilandelayo noma ngezikhathi zokwabiwa. Izilwane zingabuye zithengiswe ngamanani aphezulu kunezindleko zokukhulisa.

Ukukhiqiza ubisi lwezinkomo zobisi kuncike ekutheni izakhi zabo zofuzo nezimo eziphilayo zifana nekhwalithi ye-feed yabo - enomphumela omkhulu kunawo wonke.

Ukondla ubisi lwezinkomo nsuku zonke kulandela iphethini ehlukile. Ngemuva kokuzala, ubisi buyanda, kufinyelela emasontweni ayisithupha kuya kweziyisishiyagalombili emva kokuqeda. Ngemuva kokuphakama, ubisi oluphezulu lunikeza izinga lugcinwa emva kwalokho luye lancipha kancane kancane ngokuqhubekela phambili kwesiteji noma izinsuku ezilandelayo.

Ukunciphisa uketshezi lwesibisi nsuku zonke emva kokuphakama kubonisa ukuphikelela kokukhiqizwa ubisi. Ukuphikelela ekukhiqizeni ubisi kuchazwa ngokuthi isilinganiso, isibonelo: ukukhiqiza ubisi ngosuku lwama-240 (amalitha angu-15) uma kuqhathaniswa nokukhiqizwa ubisi ngosuku lwama-60 (amalitha angu-20) - isibonelo 15 litre / 30 litre = 30% noma 20 litre / 30 litre = 67%. Ukuphakama kwesilinganiso (isb. 67%), kungcono ukuphikelela kokukhiqizwa ubisi.

Ukunciphisa ubisi ukuvunwa kuthinteka kokubili uhlelo lokudla lwezinkomo kanye nemvelo yakhe. Ubisi obisi olukhiqizwa ngesikhathi se-lactation luwumphumela ohlangene wekhanda lakhe eliphakeme lokukhiqiza nokuphikelela kokukhiqiza ubisi ngemuva kokuphakama. Ukuphila okukhiqizayo (zonke izinsuku ngobisi) wezinkabi kunquma umkhawulo wabo wokuphila.

Inani lobisi inkomo ikhiqiza ngemuva kokuba ithole lakhe lokuqala linikeze isibonakaliso esihle sokuthi ubengakanani ubisi azokwazi ukukhiqiza ngesikhathi sakhe sokuphila. Ngakho-ke lokhu kungaba isibonakaliso esihle sokunquma lapho uthenga inkomo.

Ngemuva kokukhipha izinkomo, ngokuvamile izinkomo zinobisi izinsuku ezingaba ngu-300, emva kwalokho zomile ukuze zilungele ukukhishwa okulandelayo. Uma kunzima ukuthola izinkomo ezikhulelwe, zingase zibe zobisi izinsuku ezingaphezu kwezinsuku ezingu-300; Kodwa-ke, kufanele zomiswe okungenani izinsuku ezingu-50-60 ngaphambi kosuku olulindelekile lokulinda.

Translated by Nsika Khoza