Imitheto Yokulandelwa nguMfama Ovelisa Ubisi

©Rykie Visser Agrinet
Amafama asematsha avelisa ubisi kufuneka aqonde imithetho nje yokuqala ngokuba ngumfama ovelisa ubisi kunye nee Nkomo. Lemthetho iyacacia okokuba kufuneka kukhona indlela ezithile zolawulo ezifunekayo ukuqinisekisa ishishini elimileyo ngokuvelisa imali. Kuba iinkomo zobisi ziyimveliso yemihlambi yenkomo zobisi, iinkomo ezincancayo iyakuba zezokuqala izilwanyana zokuthengwa zokuvelisa ubisi olutsha. Ngale ndlela, ngale ndlela imali iyangena ngokuthngisa ubisi. Umhlambi ongcono wobisi unenkomo ezomileyo kunye nenkomo zobisi eziyimnyaka eyohlukileyo ukuqinisekisa ukuqhubekeka kwemveliso nokukhula komhlambi.

Amathumbu we Nkomo yo Bisi

Iinkomo zobisi zinzulu kwaye zinemathumbu okanye indlela yokucola ukutya esiswini ekhethekileyo. (Ezinzulu – emzekelo, iinkomo, Iibhokhwe, iigusha – zitya kwaye zicola ukutya kuzizityalo njenge ngca.) Ucolo kutya kwezi zinzulu kwenzeka kwisisu esubuku mila kane. Oku kuzivumela okokuba zisebenzise izitya okutyelavhuuyb7uijuh okuyingca, amadlelo kunye nengca, umzekelo ukutya okunga tyiwayo ngbantu. Isisu esimile bune esinzulu siquka reticulum, rumen, omasum, kunye ne abomasum.

Ezindawo zine zisebenza njenge ndawo enye. iRumen yee litha eziyi 160 yenza u 80% wezizisu zinzulu. Yindlela yokudidiyela enomlinganiselo ophezulu we amaerobic bacteria (intsholongwane ehlala ngaphandle kwe oxygen), protozoa, nezinye eziphilayo kwi symbiosis nenkomo zobisi (i-symbiosis yindlela emfutshane yonxulumelwano ngenzala, Phakathi kwenzala ezimbini ezohlukileyo). Ezi ziphilayo zetyisa ukutya okutyiweyo, kona ke kunikeze Amandla kunye ne protein ukuze iinkomo zivelise ubisi. Xa intsholongwane isifa ethubeni kwi abomasum, isebenza njenge ntsholongwane eyi protein yenkomo.

i-Rumen esempilweni ixhomekeke kwingca eyaneleyo (ingca esuka kumadlelo kunye ne ngqolowa) ekutyeni kwemihla ngemihla. Kodwa ke, ngenxa yamandla ne protein zikumlingaselo omncinci kwingca, ukutya okuxutyiweyo okufana ne ngqolowa (umbona, ingqolowa, ibarley ne oats), kunye nezi nikeza izakha mzimba iprotein (ukutya kwentlanzi, i-oli ye cottonseed yokutya kwe khekhe okanye kwe mbotyi ze soya) ziye zityiswe oku ukwandisa ubisi oluphuma ezinkomeni. Oku kutya kuye kudityaniswe nee minerali nentyuwa kumxube okanye ekutyeni okwenziwe ngobisi.

Imveliso yoBisi lwe Nkomo zeBisi

©Dr Carel Muller
Ukuqala ixesha lokuncancisa (ukuvelisa ubisi), iinkomo kufanele zizale amathole. Iimazi (amadoda) nemazi (abafazi) oku ibakukuvela kwamathole. Imazi zama thole ziye zisuswe kwangethuba ebomini ngenxa yenyama yazo (inyama yamathole yaziwa ngokuba yi ‘veal’ xa umzimba osele uxheliwe ungumlinganiselo we 100 kg okanye ngaphantsi) okanye zikhuliswe ukuvelisa inyama yenkomo ngaphandle kokuba zifuyelwe ukuzala. Amathole emazi kufuneka athathe indawo yenkomo ezisuswe kumhlambi. Iimazi zikhuliselwa okokuba zigqithe ekubeni ngamathole xa zikwiminyaka emibini okanye iinyanga ezingamashumi amabini anesine. Ukwehlisa iminyaka yobuthole kuqala kwehlis indleko zokukhulisa. Lendleko yemazi iye ifumaneke xa kuveliswa ubisi kumanqanaba ahlukileyo okanye ukuncancisa. Iimazi singathengiswa ngamaxabiso aphezulu kunamaxibiso okuzikhulisa.

Imveliso yebisi kwinkomo zobisi ixhomekeka kwinzala yazo nakwindawo ezihlala kuzo nezingqongileyo ezifana nokubaluleka kwesidlo - eyona icaphazela kakhulu.

Imveliso yobisi lwemihla-ngemihla lulandela indlela ethile. Emveni kokuba lithole, imveliso yobisi iyonyuka, inyuke kakhulu kwiveki ezintandathu ukuya kwezisibhozo emveni kokuba lithole. Emveni kokuba lonyukile, elizinga lobisi luphezulu luyagcinwa, emveni koko lwehle kancinci-kancinci ngomane lincancwa okanye kwiintsuku emveni kokuba lithole. Ukwehla kubisi lemihla ngemihla emveni kokuba lonyukile yimbonakalo yoveliso lobisi oluthe gqolo. Ukuthi gqolo ekuveliseni ubisi kuchazwa ngokuba ngumlinganiselo, umzekelo: imvelio yobisi ngosuku lwe 240 (iilitha eziyi 15) xa zifaniswa nemveliso yobisi ngosuku lwe 60 (iilitha eziyi 20) – umzekelo ilitha eziyi 15/ilitha ezyi 30 = 30% okanye ilitha eziyi 20/ilitha eziyi 30= 67%. Xa umlinganiselo uphezulu (umzekelo 67%), kub ngcono ukungatshintshi kwemveliso yobisi.

Ukwehla kwemveliso yobisi buchaphazelwa yindlela inkomo etya ngayo okanye ngoko kuzalwa. Ubisi oluvelisiweyo ngexesha lokuncanca zonke ziye zenze kunyuke imveliso yobisi kwaye kuthi gqolo emveni kokunyuka. Ubomi bokuvelisa (zonke iintsuku zobisi) lwenkomo kuchaza ingeniso yazo zisaphila. Umlinganiselo wobisi oveliswa yinkomo emveni kwethole lokuqala linikeza umfanekiso wokuba ingakanani ubisi elinokuveliswa ebomini benkomo. Uku kunganceda ukuthatha isigqibo sokuthenga iinkomo. Emveni kokuba lithole, iinkomo zibase bisini iintsuku ezingamakhulu amathathu (300), apho zithi zomiswe khona ukulungiselela ukuncancisa okulandelayo. Xa kunzima okokuba iinkomo zimithe, zingabazebini ngapha kwentsuku ezingama 300; kodwa ke kufuneka zomiswe noko iintsuku ezingama 50-60 wentsuku phambi kosuku lamathole elilandelayo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie