Isisekelo Somgomo weeNkomo Zebisi

©Rykie Visser Agrinet
Abalimi abatjha bebisi kufanele bazwisise imithetho ethize ngokulima ngeenkomo kanye nebisi. Imithetho le itlhadlhula bona kungebanga lani iindlela ezithize zokuphatha zitlhogeka ukuqiniseka bona irhwebo labo liletha inzuzo. Ngombana iinkomo zebisi zimkhiqizo womhlambi webisi, iinkomo ezimunyisako kuzoba zinkomo ezithengwa kokuthoma zithengelwa ibisi elitjha. Ngendlela le, urhona ukuthola imali khonokho ngebisi ozabe ulithengisa. Umdlambi omuhle webisi kanye namakonyani wazo anobudala obungafaniko enzela ukuqiniseka bona umhlambi uyakhula lokha uragela phambili ngokukhiqiza ibisi

Isistimu Yokugaya Yeenkomo Zebisi

Iinkomo zebisi zinendlela ehlukileko ezigaya ngayo ukudla. (Iinkomo, iimbuzi, izimvu - zidla bezigaye ukudla okuzintjalo okufana notjani). Iinkomo zigaya ukudla emathunjini ahlukaniseke kane. Lokhu kuzivumela bona zisebenzise ukudla okufana nehoyi, silage, amadlelo kanye ne-straw, isibonelo ukudla akungadliwa babantu.

Hlangana kwamathumbu ahlukanise kane kubalwa i-reticulum, rumen, omasum kanye ne-abomasum eyenza i-80% yamathumbu weenkomo. Ilithumbu eliqakathekile elibilisako elimumethe i-anaerobic bacteria enengi (ekumabhakutheriya ahlala ngaphandle kwe-oxygen), i-protozoa, kanye nezinye iinunwana ezihlala e-symbiosis neenkomo zebisi. (I-Symbiosis kuhlangana kweenlwane ezimbili ezihlukeneko ngokwebhawoloji). Iinunwanezi zigaya ukudla okudliweko okuletha amandla kanye namaprotheyini ekomeni ukukhiqiza ibisi. Lokha ibhakutheriya ifa ku-abomasum isebenza njengeprotheyini yebhakutheriya ekomeni. I-rumen enepilo iya ngokobana kunenani elaneleko lokudla (utjani obubuya emadlelweni kanye nama-roughage) ekudleni kwaqobe malanga.

Nanyana kunjalo, ngombana amandla kanye namaprotheyini atholakala ekudleni kweenkom o aphasi, ukudla okufana (nesphila, ikoroyi i-barley kanye ne-oats) neminye imithombo yamaprotheyini (ukudla okunefesi,imbewu zegadoni, i-cake meal nanyana i-soyabean) kukudla okungezelela ukukhiqizwa kwebisi eenkomeni. Ukudlokhu kuvamise ukuhlanganiswa namaminerali kanye netswayi ekudleni okuphiwa iinkomo zebisi.

Umkhiqizo Webisi Elibuya Eenkomeni Zebisi

©Dr Carel Muller
Ukuthoma iskhathi sokumunyisa (nanyana sokukhiqiza ibisi), iinkomo kufanele zibeletha kokuthoma. Kubelethwa ikunzi kanye nethokazi. Ikonyani lekunzi Iivamise ukubulawa msinya, libulawela inyama yayo (inyama yekonyani ibizwa bona yi-‘veal’ i-‘veal’ yinzama yalokha umzimba wekonyani unobudisi obungaphasi kwe-100 kg nanyana ngaphasi) nanyana lingakhuliswa ngomncopho wokukhiqiza inyama yekomo ngaphandle kwalokha ikhuliselwa kobana yenze amanye amakonyani.

Amakonyani asikazi kutlhogeka bona ajamiselele iinkomo ezibulawe emhlambini. Amakonyani la akhuliswa aze abe neenyanga eziyi-24 ubudala. Ukuphungula umnyaka wokobana athome ukuba namakonyani kuphungula iindleko. Iindleko zamakonyani la ziphela lokha nakukhiqizwa ibisi nanyana ngeskhathi sokobana zimunyise. Amakonyani asikazi angathengiswa ngenani eliphezulu kunokuwakhulisa.

Umkhiqizo webisi weenkomo zebisi uya ngesotja kanye nebhoduluko ezihlala kilo okufana nekhwalithi yokudla ezikudlako - okunomthelela omkhulu.

Ukobana zikhiqiza ibisi elingangani ngelanga kulandela iphetheni ethize. Ngemva kokuthola ikonyani, umkhiqizo webisi uyanyuka lizelifike eemvekeni ezine ukuya kwezisithandathu ngemva kokuthola ikonyani. Ngemva kokobana liphume khulu, lithoma liphunguke lokha ikonyani nalikhulako. Ukuphunguka komkhiqizo webisi ngemva kokoba liphume khulu kutjengisa ukuragela phambili kokuphuma kwebisi. Ukuragela komkhiqizo webisi kubizwa ngesimedo, isibonelo umkhiqizo webisi otholakala ngelanga lesi-250 (malitha ayi-15) nakumadaniswa nomkhiqizob otholakala ngelanga lesi-60 (okumalitha yi-20) - isibonelo amalitha ayi-15/amalitha ayi-30 = 30% nanyana - 20 litha/30 litha = 67%. Isimedo esiphezulu (isibonelo 67%), ubungcono kuragela phambili komkhiqizo webisi.

Ukuphunguka komkhiqizo webisi kuphethwe yiprogramu yokobana ikomo idla njani kanye nesotja yayo. Inani lebisi elikhiqizwa ngeskhathi sokumunyisa linomthelela ohlanganiswa kulokha ikomo ikhiqiza ibisi elinengi nalokha iragela phambili ngokukhiqiza ibisi. Ukobana ikomo likhiphe ibisi elingangani epilweni yayo kuya ngokobana ilethe inzuzo engangani ngebisi layo. Inani lebisi ikomo elikhiqiza ngemva kokuthola ikonyani lokuthoma lipha isitjengiso esihle sokobana izokurhona ukukhiqiza ibisi elingangani epilwenayo. Njeke lokhu kungaba sitjengiso esihle lokha nawuthatha isiqunto sokuthenga ikomo.

Ngemva kokobana ithole ikonyani, ikomo ivamise ukuba nebisi amalanga ayi-300 ngemva kwawo liyoma ukwenzela ukuzilungiselela isikhathi esilandelako sokumunyisa. Lokha kubudisi kobana iinkomo zimithe, zingalokhu zimunyisa amalanga adlula ayi-300, nanyana kunjalo kuvanele ome amalanga nakayi-50-60 ngaphambi kokobana ibe nelinye ikonyani.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe