iRobben Island Umqakiswano Wezombangazwe

Uguquko Lwamandla Ombusazwe

©Tracey Derrick
Ngo 1948 Inhlangano YamaNational yawina ukhetho (kubelungu) lukazwelonke kanti kwabe sekususwa no-Smuts emandleni. Kwabe kungukuqala kweminyaka engu 50 yengcindezelo nenzondo – isikhathi esinqanyulelwa ngegama elithi ‘apartheid’.

Eminyakeni emibalwa waqalela ukuletha imithetho eyayisungulelwe ukugxoba inkululeko yomuntu omnyama namakhaladi aseNingizimu Afrika. Nxashana lemithetho eyabe idicelela phansi kwasani nokho yabe iwufuzo aluthathe kokhokho bawo amabhunu, ungazitsheli-ke ukuthi i apartheid yabe ixabene nebala kuphela. Kwakunesinye isizathu salenqubo eyabe futhi icatshangwe kahle: kwabe kungukuthi uhulumeni oqhoqhobelwe ngabamhlophe kuphela ube nezisebenzi ezithengwa ngesente zabansundu.

Nomakanjani lomqondo kuhulumeni ezweni elabe lihaqwe yiningi labansundu noma kanjani yayizoletha ukutoyitoya nemibhadlango. Abasegunyeni base bebona ukuthi bayodinga indawo lakhona bengagqoma khona abavusa umhlwenga. Yingakho, ngo 1959 uNgqongqoshe wezoBulungiswa wamemezela ukuthi isiqhingi sesizoba yijele futhi. Umbutho wabe uhlelelwe ezweni ngaphandle kwaso qede kwabe sekuvinjwa kwasani engangena esiqhingini. Kwabe sekungukuqala kwekhasi elisha emlandwini wesiqhingi.

Iminyaka YoBandlululo

©Eric Miller
Umboni omusha ngo 1958 kwabe kungu Ndunankulu uDr. H.F. Verwoerd. Ngamagama akhe ayemtoti, lomholi owayengazwile waqopha isithombe se ‘apartheid’ nentuthuko ehlukanisiwe, lakhona abansundu babenziwa ‘abagawuli bemithi nabakhi bamanzi’. Ekubakhokheleni abansundu ngomsebenzi wabo uVerwoerd wathembisa ukubabheka ngenkolo yoBuKhrestu.

UVerwoerd wayazi kahle ukuthi bazoba khona abazomelena naye kuMaAfrika, isinqumo sabe sesithathwa ukulungiswa iRobben Island ibe yijele labo bonke abamelene nohulumeni. Icala lokuketula umbuso, labasolwa abangu 150 kwizinhlanga zonke ababezobekwa icala lalelitulo, elabe selilungiswe kahle, kusuka ngo 1961, iziboshwa zobugebengu zayiswa esiqhingini ukuyolungisela iRobben Island ukuze igqome ubuningi babo bonke abamelene nohulumeni. Icala lokuketula umbuso hlehle laphetha emva kweminyaka emine lingaveli icala.

Ngalesosikhathi i ANC yabe isiyinhlangano nombutho esilandelwa izwe lonke, isihole izinhlabaluhide ngoxolo zokumelana nemithetho emibi kahulumeni. Ukuhluleka kwayo ukuya phambili, kwakhathaza abaningi, nanxa kunjalo esinye isikhuni sikaKhongolose uRobert Sobukwe waphuma wayoqala inhlangano eyabe inobusosha, eyayibizwa nge Pan African Congress (PAC), ngo 1959.

Iziboshwa Zokuqala Ezagqonywa eRobben Island

©Tracey Derrick
Ngo 1960, izinkulungwane zaba kwi defiance Campaign eyayimelene nomthetho omubi wamapasi owabe unqunda ukubonakala kwabantu abansundu ezindaweni zabamhlophe. Enye yalemibhindlango yaba ngaphandle kwesiteshi samaphoyisa eSharpville ngase Vereeniging, amaphoyisa avese adubula ezixukwini. Abulala abantu abawu 69, abaningi abadubuleka ngemumva ngesikhathi bebaleka. Lesosigigaba sethusa izwe lonke kunye namazwe aphesheya. Ngokuphazima kweso uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika wahlala kulolodaba. UKhongolose ne PAC zanqunywa ukuba yizinhlangano ezisemthethweni qede zavalwa.

Imithetho emisha yashawa eyayenza kube lula ukubopha abaholi abamelana nenqubo. Emva kwesikhathi uVerwoerd waphuma embusweni wamazwe hlangene qede wathi iNingizimu Afrika isizoba noMengameli wayo ozimele yedwa. I-ANC ne PAC yanquma ukungena eThala ihlome izikhali imelane ne apartheid, zombili lezinhlangano zasungula imibutho yazo yezempi, uPoqo noMkhonto weSizwe.

Emva kombhikisho wase Sharpeville, iziboshwa zokuqala zombangazwe kwabe kwakungamalunga kaPoqo nawe PAC. Zaqala ukufika ngo 1961 kuya phambili, zifikela esiqhingini esimanhlembethwane esasishiywe ngamasosha siyihlane nesabe singakulungele ukuba yiJele elikhulu. Iziboshwa zokuqala, ngokushesha zabe sezifakwa emsebenzini wokuqwala amatshe zakhe ngawo amagumbi ejele lazo.

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema