I-Robben Island: i-Pawn yepolotiki

Ukutjhuguluka kwamandla wepolotiki

©Tracey Derrick
Ngonyaka ka-1948, ihlangano ye-Nationalist Party yathumba amakhetho uSmuth wasuswa ekubeni mdosi phambli. Kwabakuthoma kweminyaka eyi-50 yegandelelo nehloyo–kwabasikhathi iphasi elese liyisirhunyeza ngokobana yibandlululo.

Eminyaka eyi-40, urhulumende wafaka kancani kancani imithetho egade yenzelwe ukugandelela abantu abanzima beSewula Africa nama-coloured .Lokha isenzo sabesi sokobana bagandelele abantu abanzima, ngaphandle kokungabaza sivela ebazimini babo bamabhuru, akutjho bona ibandlululo kukuninana ngokwebala kwaphela. Gade akhona omunye unobangela wesenzwesi gade kusiqiniseko sokobana urhulumende wabantu abamhlophe usebenzisa abantu abanzima ubakgholele imali encani.

Kusepepeneni, bona isenzweso sakarhulumende osenarheni ezele abantu abanzima gade sizokudala bona kubenemitjhagalo kanye nokuphikisana nawo. Njeke abaphathi babona bona bazokutlhoga indawo yokubeka boke abadala imiraro. Ngonyaka ka-1959, ungcongcotjhe omkhulu wezobulungiswa wamemezela bona i-Robben Island sele izokutjhugululwa ibe lijele godu . Ukufakwa kwamasotja kwafuduselwa ephasini begodu khange basavumela muntu bona angene esihlengeleni. Kulapho kwathoma khona umlando omumbi wesihlengelesi.

Iminyaka yebandlulo

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1958, lokha kubekwa uDr. H.F. Verwoerd njengongcongcotjhe .Wapenda isthombe esiyitjhefu sebandlululo nokukhula okuhlukeneko, lapha abantu abanzima batjhugululelwa ekubeni bakapi beenkuni, nabakhi bamanzi .Kunokobana bababhadele u Verwoerd wathembisa bona uzobatlhogomela ngesiko lobukrestu.

UVerwoerd gade azi bona uzokuphikiswa babantu abanzima, begodu isiqunto sathathwa bona i-Robben Island le kubelijele laboboke abaphikisana nomthethwakhe nanyana kakarhulumendabo. Lapha abarhononelwa bazo zoke iinhlanga egade babekwe umlandu wokulinga ukuketula urhulumende gade sele bathomile, ukukhamba ikhotho. Iimbotjhwa ezibogalajanezi zathunyelwa esiqhengeni se-Robben Island, bona ziyokurhelebha ukuyilungisa ukuze ikghone ukujamelana nembotjhwa zepolotiki egade zizokuba zinengi. Umlando wokulinga ukuketula umbuso waphela ngemva kweminyaka emine ngaphandle kokobana kubenesigwebo nanyana bagwetjwe.

Ngeskhathesi, ihlangano ye-ANC gade kuyihlangano esekelwa khulu, begodu besele yenza imitjhagalo yokuthula eminengi, itjhagalela urhulumende. Ukungathuthuki kwayo msinya kage kukwatisa abanye okwenza bona omunye wabo uRobert Sobukwe aphume kiyo ayozitlamela yakhe ebizwa bona yi-Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), ngonyaka ka-1959.

Iimbotjhwa zokuthoma zepolotiki ezathunyelwa esihlengeleni i-Robben Island

©Tracey Derrick
Ngonyaka ka-1960, kwatlanywa umkakaso omkhulu wokuphikisana nalokho agade kunquntiweko, baphikisana nomthetho wamapasa ogade ibekela abantu abanzima imikhawulo yokuya eendaweni zabantu abamhlophe. Komunye umtjhigalo umtjhagalo ofana nalo, ngaphandle kwesitetjhi samapholisa esise-Sharpeville, eduze kwe Vereeniging, amapholisa avulela ngamakule ewomeni labantu. Abulala abantu ama-69, ubunengi babo abadutjulwa ngemva lokha nababalekako. Isenzwesi sathusa istjhaba salapha enakgheni le, nephasi loke. Urrhulumende weSewula Africa wamemezela bona ihlangano ye-ANC neye PAC akusizinhlangano ezisemthethweni waziqotha.

Kwamemezelwa imithetho emitjha, eyenza bona kube lula ukubanjwa nokubotjhwa abadosi phambili benhlangano eziphikisako. Lada uVerwoerd watjhiya inarha ye-Britain Commonwealth wamemezela bona iSewula Africa sele iyi-Republic. Kulapho ihlangano ye-ANC neye–PAC zathatha sisqunto sokobana balwe norhulumende webandlululo ngenkhali, bazitlame iinqhema ezazizokwenza lokho ezibizwa bona yiPoqo kanye no Umkhonto we Sizwe.

Ngemva kwesigameko seSharpville lesi, iimbotjhwa zokuthoma zepolotiki ezabotjhwa zathunyelwa esihlengeleni i-Robben Island inengi lazo kwakumalunga we-PAC kanye ne Poqo. Bathoma ukufika ngomnyaka ka-1961 ukuya phezulu, bafika esihlengeleni esihlangahlangeneko esisandukutjhiywa majoni esasingakakulungeli ukubalijele elikhulu. Iimbotjhwa zokuthoma zenziswa umsebenzi wokobana zikape igwari bezizakhela iinkumba ezazizokuba kulapha babotjhelwa khona.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe