Robben Island: Laha vanwatipolotiki vanga tirhisiwa

Ku cinca ka matimba ya tipolotiki

©Tracey Derrick
Hi 1948, vandla Nationalist Party (white) ri humelerile eka nhlawulo wa mani na mani naswona Smuts u susiwile eku fumeni. Laha hilaha kunga sungula kona 50 wa malembe ya ntshikelelo na rivengo – nkarhi lowunga komisiwa hikuva wuvitaniwa “Xihlawuhlawu”.

Eka malmbe yohlaya lawa yanga landzela, mfumo awu veka milawu yantshikelelo hika ntsongo leyi ayi endleriwe kutshikelela vantima na ma coloured va Afrika Dzonga. Kasi nhlamuselo yaku seketela maendlelo lawa aswi fambelana swinene na ndzhaka leyi vanga siyeriwa yona hiva kokwani wa vona, naswona avanga hleketi leswaku xihlawuhlawu akungari hi nghohe ntsena. Akuri na xivangelo xinwani kambe lexi axiri kona xa leswaku valungu va fanele vatirheriwa hi vanhu va ntima lava avanga hakeriwi mali yovonaka.

Swile rivaleni leswaku, maendlelo lawa hi mfumo wa tiko leringa na vantima votala swita endla leswaku kuva na ku tsotsomba xikanwe na ku kombisa kuvilela. Varhangeri va tiko ava fanele kuva va endla ndzhawu leyi vangata pfalela kona lava avata tshova nawu. Leswi swiendle leswaku, hi 1959, Holobye wa vululami anga tivisa leswaku Robben Island yita tlhelela kuyava khotso nakambe. Kusungule kuva na kuvekeriwa swilo leswi aswi fambisana na vusocha swisungule ku endliwa naswona akaha vangi na kungheniwa eka xihlala lexiya. Laha kunga sungula rendzo rintshwa ra matimu ya xihlala lexiya.

Malembe ya xihlawuhlawu

©Eric Miller
Hi 1958, murhangeri loyi ari na xivono u teke vulawuri bya tiko, Prime Minister, Dr. H.F. Verwoerd. Hi marito yayena lawa yotsokombela, xivono xa yena lexi xa lunya xihumexe xifaniso xobiha swinene xa xihlawuhlawu, lexi axi hambanyisa nhluvuko, laha vantima ava hundzuriwa vatshovi va tihunyi na vaki va mati. Tani hi hakelo ya mintirho ya vona na nxaniseko lowu, Verwoerd uva tshembisile ku hlayisa vantima hindlela leyinene ya ndzhavuko wa xikreste.

Verwoerd a switiva kahle leswaku kutava va ku kanetalokukulu swinene kusuka eka vanhu vantima, laha kunga tekiwa xiboho xaku lulamisa xihlala xa Robben Island tani hi khotso ra lava vangata kanetana na mfumo. Treason Trial, laha vanhu va 150 va tinxaka tohambana vanga hehliwa hi nanadzu lowu hinkarhi walowo ayiri eku lulamiseleni sweswo, kusukela hi 1961, vabohiwa lava hehliwaka hi vugevenga ava yisiwa kona kuya lulamisela nhlayo leyikulu leyi ayi languteriwile ya vabohiwa va tipolotiki. Loko mitsundzuka Treason Trial, yihele endzhaku ka mune wa malembe laha akungari hava na munhu na wunwe eka vahehliwa lava loyi anga gweviwa.

Hinkarhi lowu vandla ra ANC a ri seketeriwa swinene tiko hinkwaro naswona se ari sungule mapfhumba yokombisa kuvilela yakurhula, laha ava vilela eka mfumo lowu wa ntshikelelo. Kuva vanga voni ku cinca eka leswi ava lwela swona aswiva tisela ntshikelelo swinene, laha wanuna wa xivindzi Robert Sobukwe anga phatluka kusuka eka ANC kuva aya sungula vandla rakwe leri vitaniwaka Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), hi 1959.

Vabohiwa vosungula va tipolotiki ku yisiwa e Robben Island

©Tracey Derrick
Hi 1960, kukombisa kuvilela lokukulu kuve kona laha aku tiveka tani hi Defiance Campaign loku aku kongomisiwile eka kulwisana na milawu ya mapasi, leyi ayi sivela ku famba famba ka vanhu eka tindzhawu ta valungu. Eka rinwana ra mapfhumba lawa yokombisa kuvilela, e hamdle ka xitichi xa maphorisa e Sharpeville, kusuhi nale Vereeniging, maphorisa vabalesele ntshungu lowu awu kombisa kuvilela. Laha vanga dlaya vanhu va 69, laha votala vavona vanga baleseriw enhlaneni loko varikarhi vatsutsuma. Leswi swihlamarisile tiko hinkwaro xikan’we na misava. Mfumo wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga wuhlamule hiku hatlisa swinene. Mavandla ya ANC na PAC ya vuye ya tekiwa tani hi mavandla lawa yangariki enawini kutani ya yirisiwa.

Milawu yintshwa yinghenisiwile leswaku swita olova kuva ku khomiwa naku pfaleriwa ka varhangeri va mavandla ya tipolotiki. Endzhaku ka sweswo Verwoerd usukile kuva xirho xa nhlanganelo wa matiko xa British Commonwealth kutani a endla leswaku tiko ra Afrika Dzonga riva Republic. Kuyisa emahlweni, vandla ra PAC na ANC yateke xiboho xaku teka matlharhi valwisana na xihlawuhlawu kuya emahlweni, laha vanga vumba ntlawa wa mavuthu wa Poqo na Umkhonto we Siswe.

Endzhaku ka ku yayarheliwa ka vanhu e Sharpeville, vabohiwa vosungula va tipolotiki kuva vakhomiwa vayisiwa e Robben Island votala akuri swirho swa PAC na Poqo. Vafikile kusukela hi lembe ra 1961 kuya emahlweni, vafikela eka xihlala xovava swinene lexi axaha kutshikiwa hi mavuthu ya masocha naswona axinga se ringanela kuva khotso. Vabohiwa vosungula vatirhisiwile ku cela maribye xikanwe naku aka tikamara leti vangata etlela eka tona.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni