Robben Island: Tigcila Tepolitiki

Lushintjo Kwete Politiki

©Tracey Derrick
Ngomnyaka wango 1948, licembu lema neshinali, labamhlophe laba wina lukhetfo, kwehlisa ema (Smuts) esikhundleni. Kulapho kwacala iminyaka lelishumi nakuhlanu lencindzetelo nendzondo, sigaba lesabitwa ngekutsi I ”Apartheid”. Eminyakeni lemifishane leyendlula, ugavamenti bewufaka luhlelo lolusha lemitsetfo leto cindzetela bantfu labamnyama kanye nemakhalatsi ase South Africa.

Kusachubekwa kanjalo, lendlela yokwenta bebayitsatse kubo Gogomkhulu babo, ungacabangin kutsi I “apartheid’’ yacala ngenca yenzondo yebala lesikhumba. Bekunesinye sizatfu lesibenta kutsi bavumele lomtsetfo: sidzingo sekutsi bantfu labamhlophe bakwati kutfola bantfu labamnyama ngemali lephansi, baba gcilate ngomsebenti.

Kodva vele, lena ndlela yekwenta, eliveni lapho kunebantfu labamnyama labaningi, bekuto banga kuphikisana nalomtsetfo kanye noku toyitoya. Laba phetse umtsetfo babona kutsi kutodzingeka indzawo lapho banga valela khona labo laba banga tinkinga.

Ngalokho ngomnyaka wango 1959, umphatsi wemitsetfo watfula kutsi iRobben Island beyi tophindza ibe lijele. Tibhamu netikhali tafakwa kabusha emngcengcemeni kute lendzawo ye (Island) inga ngeneki kalula. Sigcamu lesibi semlandvo we Robben Island besi tawucala.

Iminyaka ye Apartheid

©Eric Miller
Ngomnyaka wango 1958, Dr. H.H Verwoerd watsatsa tintsambo tekuba lisekeli la mongameli welive. Ngemavi akhe lamnandzi, bekanga nanhlitiyo, wabeka sitfombe sa phoyizeni se “apartheid’’, wahlukanisa indzawo lapho bantfu labamnyama bebatfotiswa tinkhuni futsi bakhiswe emanti. Vorwoerd watsembisa kunakekela bantfu labamnyama ngokwe nkholo.

Vorwoerd bekadze ati kutsi kutoba nekuphikisa kwebantfu labamnyama bangahambelani naye, kwase kwentiwa sincumo kutsi kuvulwe iRobben Island kuvalela bonkhe laba phikisana no Hulumende. Sigwebo sebaphikisi bomtsetfo welive, lapho khona 150 webantfu balolonkhe luhlobo bagwetjwa khona, kusuka ku 1961, babulali netigebengu tacalwa kuvalelwa eRobben Island kulungisela kuboshwa kwalabo labeba lwela inkhululeko.

Kwaphela iminyaka lemine kungakatsetswa emacala abo. Ngaleso sikhatsi, I ANC besevele kulicembu leli nebalandzeli kantsi seyichube nabaningi ngokuthula, beyi toyi toya ngokuthula kwehlisa uGavamenti. Lizinga lentfutfuko laphatsa kabi labaningi, kanjalo Robert Sobukwe wahlukana ne ANC wayo cala licembu lemasotja, labeka bitwa nge (Pan African Congress) I PAC, ngomnyaka wango 1959.

Tiboshwa Tekucala Tepolitiki, Kuvalelwa eRobben Island

©Tracey Derrick
Ngomnyaka wango 1960, kwaphuma umtsetfo logwema bantfu labamnyama emagcekeni ebantfu labamhlophe. Ngelinye lema langa etoyi toyi, ngaphandle kwe siteshini sema phoyisa eSharpeville, dvutane ne Vereeniging, emaphoyisa avulela tinhlavu emcimbini webantfu. Babulala bantfu labama shumi lama lasitfupha nesigoba galo lunye, laba ningi babo badutjulwa ngemuva basagijima bazama ku baleka. Lesehlakalo latfusa sive sonkhe kanye nemave lamanye. Kuti phatsa kweGavamenti wase South Africa kwa shintja.

I ANC kanye ne PAC, batfolwa bangahambisani nemtsetfo base bayacoshwa. Imitsetfo lemisha yasungulwa, letowenta kutsi kube lula kuboshwa kwema cembu laphikisako. Emuva kwesikhatsi, Verwoerd washiya iBritish nebunjinga bayo wenta iSouth Africa live leli phelele. IPAC kanye ne ANC yabona kutsi kuhle kutsi bahlome nangetibhamu, kulwisana ne apartheid, omabili lamacembu akhipha ema sotja emaceleni, abitwa nge Poqo kanye neMkhonto wesizwe, ngenhlonipho.

Esigamwkweni sase Sharpville, bosoma politiki bekucala lababoshwa bayiswa khona eRobben Island, bekuyi PAC kanye Poqo. Bafika kusuka kumnyaka wango 1961 kuya embhili, bavalelwa endzaweni lenganako kuthula, lecedzwa kulahlwa nama sotja. Tiboshwa tekucala tafika tafakwa emsebentini ngokushesha, tigubha ematje okwakha emaseli abo.

Translated by Thandokuhle Motha