Ikhwalithi Yoju Nemikhiqizo

© Waugsberg
Uju lungamanzi ammnandi enziwe, izinyosi nezinye izinambuzane, kusukela emzimbeni wezitshalo futhi lingafunyanwa ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene - kusukela ku-runny noma ukhilimu ekuthungeni kuze kube lula nokukhanya okumnyama okombala, noma ngaphandle kwezicucu zezinyosi.

Ukubuyiselwa emuva okungenani iminyaka engu-4 000 ema-hieroglyphs eGibhithe ebonisa impilo yezinyosi, uju ube yi-sweetener kuphela owaziwa umuntu iminyaka eyizinkulungwane. Intshisekelo ekukhuleni izinyosi yaqala ngo-1792 emva kwencwadi mayelana nezinyosi nobunyosi yabhalwa nguFrancois Huber, isazi esingokwemvelo oyimpumputhe futhi umshumayeli waseMelika u-Lorenzo Langstroth owayengumngane wase-1850, waqala ukukhishwa kwezinyosi, i-patent esasetshenziswa namuhla.

Amazinga Woju

Umthetho wamanje waseNingizimu Afrika, uMthetho wamaZiko wezoLimo wezoLimo, 1990 (uMthetho No. 119 ka 1990) ubeka amamaki amabili - ibanga elikhethiwe nebanga lezimboni - uju oluketshezi, uju oluhlelekile kanye noju lwekhesi. Umthetho ubusa ikhwalithi ngokubeka amazinga ezinkambiso ezithile ezifana ne-fructose uju kuya kwesilinganiso se-glucose, ubungani kanye ne-HMF (okwamanje i-hydroxymethylfurfural uju kanye nenkhomba yekhwalithi yamanothi) okuqukethwe.

Umbala Nomsoco Woju

Ikhwalithi yobusi ayihlangene nombala wayo. Umbala uju uxhomeke emthonjeni we-nectar futhi ungahluka emanzini amhlophe kuze kube mnyama noma kumnyama.

Isibonelo, uju olubomvu luvela emakhaleni ase-citrus, kuyilapho ubusi obubomvu obumnyama bungase bukhiqizwe kusuka kumbungu we-avocado izimbali noma izimbali zasendle.

I-National Honey Board yase-United States ichaza ukuthi, ngokufanayo, ukunambitheka nokuvuthwa koju kubuye kuxhomeke emthonjeni wegazi. Uju lwezinyosi luyoba nenambitheka enothile ye-buttery ngenkathi uju olukhiqizwa ezinhlobonhlobo ze-Eucalyptus kungabonisa izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene zamaphrofayli enambitha, kepha ngokuvamile kunomvalo oqinile ngokunambitheka kancane kwemithi. Ngokuphambene nalokhu, uju owenziwe ngezimbali ze-citrus unomusa omuhle ngezwi eliphansi le-citrusy. I-honeyberry uju i-amber elula ngombala nge-flavour kahle. Uju lwe-Acacia lumnene futhi lumnandi kakhulu ngokuqukethwe okuphansi kwe-sugrose ngenkathi uju oluvela ku-lucerne luthande kakhulu kunezinye izinhlobo eziningi zobusi. Uju olwenziwe nge-canola flower uct granulates ngokushesha kakhulu, kaningi ngisho esidlekeni.

Izinhlobo Zoju

Uju olumnandi aluzange lushiswe, lucutshungulwe noma lungasebenzi futhi lufaneleke kakhulu kubanini bezinyosi abasha, ngoba aludingi ukushisa okubizayo nokuhlunga impahla. Iqukethe ne-bee impova, ephezulu kuma-amino acids nezinye izithako ezizuzisayo.

Ubusika obukhulu kunanoma yikuphi okungafufusa, ukuvutha nokugcoba (ukukhanya). Ukukhiqizwa kwayo kuyinkqubo encane futhi ingaqukatha amabhaktheriya.

Uhlobo lwezohwebo noma oluvamile lungase lubekwe phansi. I-Pasteurisation ukubulawa kwama-bacteria ngokushisa umkhiqizo wokudla ku-70℃ bese uyipholisa ngokushesha. Ukushisa uju kwenza kube lula ukuhlunga futhi ibhodlela futhi kuveza uju ocacile, olungeke ludideke.

'Uju olunomlenze' lukhishwa kahle uju, oluthathwa ukuze lube nokuvumelana okunamfutho oluhambisana nobunzima obusakazekayo.

'Sika uju weqanda' kusho i-honeycomb neju, eliye lasikwa futhi lipakishwe.

'Uju lobusika' lisho noma yikuphi uju oluxubile. Lokhu kusho ukuthi uju lwenziwa kusuka ekusongeni okuyishukela kwezitshalo ezihlukile kunezimbali, kodwa kungasho futhi ukuthi uju usuqotshiwe (exutshwe nesiraphu kanye nezinye ushukela) njengoba ama-molecule eshukela 'oju lobuqili' ahlukile kulowo omsulwa uju.

I-Mānuka uju yenziwa emthonjeni wembali yesitshalo saseMānuka (iLeptospermum scoparium), isitshalo semvelo eNew Zealand. I-honey mānuka ibhekwa njengophakeme futhi inezindawo ezikhethekile zokunakekelwa kwe-antibacterial and wound.

Iziphuzo Ezinoju

Uju lumnandi kunokushukela futhi lungasetshenziswa njengesinye ishukela ku-cocktails, i-teas iced, iziphuzo ezishisayo neziphuzo ezisekelwe izithelo. Uju kufanele luxubane ngamanzi - usebenzisa izingxenye ezilinganayo (ivolumu efanayo) ngayinye. Sishisa ingxube kancane kuze kube yilapho inyosi ichitheka emanzini. Ukuxuba kungagcinwa cishe amasonto amabili.

Isiphuzo saseScotland uDrambuie i-liqueur eyenziwa nge-whisky, uju, izinongo kanye namakhambi, ngenkathi i-mead ingumxube ovuthiwe uju, imvubelo namanzi. Umsuka we-mead ungadluliselwa emuva ezitsheni zobumba zaseShayina kusuka ku-7000 B.C. I-Herb kanye ne-spice-efaka imfucuza ikholwa ukuthi igula ukucindezeleka futhi ithuthukise ukugaya.

Yiini Uju Lwamanga?

Ngo-2018, kwatholakala ukuthi uju lobuqili lwathengiswa eNingizimu Afrika. Le nyosi yokukhohliswa kungenzeka ibe yenziwe ngaphakathi, nakuba iningi lezinyosi zaseNingizimu Afrika lingeniswa eChina.
Umkhiqizi wendawo, u-Honey Peel, uchaza ukuthi uju lobuqili lwenziwa ngokuxuba uju wangempela ngesiraphu yamabele, ushukela noma ushukela. Le nqubo ibizwa ngokuthi "ukuphinga".

Ukwengeza i-sugar syrups noma ngisho namanzi kuya uju wangempela kuvumela abakhiqizi ukuba bathengise lobu honey obuyinqaba ngamanani aphansi kunezinyosi ezihlanzekile. ('Uhlobo' lwangempela luhwetshwe cishe ku-R65/500g ngo-2018).

Inkinga ngezinyosi ezikhohlisayo ziphindwe kabili: ezempilo nezomnotho. Uju lwezinyosi kanye noshukela lungathinta kabi impilo (namazinga e-ushukela egazini) wabathengi, ikakhulukazi abanesifo sikashukela. Okwesibili, intengo ephansi yobusi bezinkohliso yenza kube nzima kubafuyi bezinyosi bendawo ukuba bancintisane.

Abathengi bayelulekwa ukuthi bafunde amalebula ngokucophelela. Ukuthenga uju waseNingizimu Afrika wendawo ufuna amagama 'akhiqizwa eNingizimu Afrika' ngokumelene 'nokuhlanganiswa eNingizimu Afrika'.

Ukuhlolwa kwekhaya okulula: hlanganisa uju oluyingxenye elinganayo nemimoya e-methylated. Uju lwangempela luzogoba phansi, kanti uju lobuqili luzoxubana nemimoya.

Translated by Nsika Khoza