Umgangatho woBusi kunye Neemveliso

© Waugsberg
Ubusi yincidi emnandi eswiti eyenziwa zinkosazana zenyosi ezaziwa ngokuba zi honeybees kunye nezinye izinambuzane, ezisuka kwincindi yezityalo kwaye ifumaneka ngentlobo ngentlobo- ukususela kwebalekayo okanye ibengqindilili esandleni iphantse yangumbala ocwengile kunye nombala ophantse wamnyama, nentwana-ntwana ze ncindi yobusi (honeycomb) okanye ngaphandle kwazo.

Ukubuya umva kwiminyaka engama 4000 ukuya kwi hieroglyphs eYiphutha kubonakaliswa ngobomi beenyosi, ubusi sesona sincasanisi si switi zaziwa luluntu kwiinkulungwane. Umdla ekugcineni iinyosi waqala ngonyaka ka 1972 emveni kwencwadi engenyosi nobusi yathi yabhalwa ngu Francois Huber, owethanda indalo engaboni ngamehlo kwaye ngeminyaka yo 1850 umshumayeli wase Melika uLorenzo Langstroth waseka ikhakha leenyosi lokuqala elikwaziyo ukususwa, kwaye oku kusasetyenziswa nakule mihla.

Amanqanaba Obusi

Imithetho elawulayo u, i-Agricultural Product Standard Act, 1990 (Act No.119 of 1990) ichaza amabanga amabini – ‘ichoice grade kunye ne industrial grade’ – kubusi obungamanzi, obungqindilili, kunye nencindi. Umthetho ulawula umgangatho ngokuthi ubeke amanqanaba wempawu ezithile ezifana ne fructose yobusi ukuya kumlinganiselo we glucose kunye nesichazi somlinganiselo wobusi, ubunzulu ne HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural efumaneka kubusi kwaye nechaza umgangatho wobusi).

Umbala Nencasa Yobusi

Umgangatho wobusi awunanto yokwenza nombala. Umbala wobusi uxhomekeka kwimveliso yencindi kwaye kungohluka ukususela kumbala omhlophe oku kwamanzi ukuya kophantse wamdaka okanye phantse mnyama.

Umzekelo, ubusi obumbala ukhanyayo ungasuka kwincindi yokudubula (citrus blossom) logama ezimbala o-orenji zingabe zenziwe ngencindi yokudubula kwe ovocado okanye iintyatyambo zasendle (wild flowers).

iNational Honey Board yase ese US icacisa ngokufnayo, incasa kunye nevumba lobusi zixhomekeka kokokuba incindi iseka phi. Ubusi obuyi avocado honey bune ncasa etyebileyo efana nebhotolo logama ubusi obusuka kwi Eucalyptus zinganencasa ezohlukileyo, kodwa ziye zibenencasa eza ngamandla ephantse yangathi liyeza. Okuphikisana noku, ubusi obenziwe kwi citrus blossoms inencasa nendawo efana ne citrus kodwa evakala ezantsi. iBlueberry Honey ingumbala o-orenji kodwa ongagqamanga nencasa evakala kamnandi. I-Acacia Honey iphakathi kwaye iswiti kakhulu kwaye umlinganiselo weswekile mncinci logama ubusi obusuku kwi Lucerne bungekho switi kunezinye iintlobo zobusi. Ubusi obenziwe ngencindi yentyantyambo icanola iyakhawuleza ukwenza amagaqa, kwaye rhoqo kwikhakha leenyosi.

Iintlobo Zobusi

Ubusi obuhlaza abenziwanga shushu, busetyenziswa ukwenza iimveliso, okanye buxutywe nezinye izinto konke kulungile kubagcini nyosi abase batsha, kuba ayifuni kutshiswa okushushu okanye izixhobo zokuyiphazamisa. Inayo bee pollen, iphezulu kwi amino acids kunye nezinye iintwana-ntwana eziluncedo.

Ubusi obuhlaza, bungasibekela, budidiyeleke okanye bube zinkozo. Imveliso iyacotha kwaye inganazo iintsholongwane.
Ubusi obuthengisiweyo okanye obuqhelekileyo kungeneka okokuba buxilongiwe. ‘ipasteurisation’ kukubulala intsholongwane ngoku kushushubeza ukutya kubushushu obungu 70 emveni koko ipholiswe. Ukushushubeza ubusi kwenza kubelula ukuyihluza nokufaka kwibhotile ibebubusi obucwengileyo, obungazukufakwa neswekile bome.
‘iCreamed Honey’ okanye ubusi obungqindilili, bubusi obuzizigaqala ezincinci, benziwa okokuba bufane ngobu ngqindilili obuthambileyo obuqabekayo.

‘iCut comb honey’ ithetha okokuba ikhakha elinobusi, oluthe lasikwa la pakishwa.
‘iHoneydew honey’ ligama elibhekisa kubusi obu dextrorotatory. Oku kuthetha okokuba ubusi benziwa yincindi yeswekile yezityalo ezingezinye iintyatyambo, kodwa kungathetha kokuba ubusi buxutywe nencindi nezinye iiswekile kuba intwana ntwana zeswekile ‘kubusi obunge bubo’ zinomahluko kubusi benene.

iManuka Honey yenziwa ngencindi yentyatyambo yomthi iManuka (Leptospermum scoparium) isityalo esisuka kwelase New Zealand. iManuka honey ibonakala ixabisekile kwaye inceda ukulwa neentsholongwane kunye nokupilisa amanxeba.

Iziselo zoBusi

Ubusi bunencasa eswiti eyogqitha iswekile kwaye bungasetyenziswa endaweni yeswekile kumxube weziselo, iti ezibandayo kunye neziselo ezishushu, kananjalo neziselo ezenziwe ngeziqhamo. Ubusi mabuxutywe namanzi- kusetyeniswa imilinganiselo elinganayo (nobungakanani obulinganayo) nganye. Shushubeza umxube kancinci de ubusi buzamiseke emanzini. Lomxube ungagcinwa iiveki ezimbini.

Isiselo sama Scottish iDambulee senziwe nge whiskey, ubusi, iziqholo kunye nemithi, logama imead isisiselo esixutywe nobusi, yeast kunye namanzi. Imvelaphi ye mead lingabuyiswa umva kuma China awayesenza iingqayi ukususela kuma 7000 B.C. imithi kunye neziqholo ezenza imead kukholelwa okokuba inyanga uxinzelelo lwengqondo incede nokucola ukutya esiswini.

Yintoni ubusi Obungebubo?

Ngonyaka ka 2018, kuye kwafunyaniswa okokuba ubusi obungebubo buye b athengiswa eMzantsi Afrika. Obu busi ingebubo kungenzeka ookuba buveliswe kweli, nangona inkoliso yobusi eMzantsi Afrika buvela kwelase China.

Umvelisi weli, uPeel’s Honey, ucacisa okokuba obu busi ingebubo benziwa ngokuxuba ubusi obububo nencindi yombona, isugar cane okanye rice sugar. Oku kubizwa ngokuba yi “adulteration”.

Ukuxuba iincindi zeswekile nokuba ngamanzi kubusi bokwe nyaniso ivumela abavelisi ukuba bathengise obu busi bungebubo ngamaxabiso aphantsi kunobusi obungaxutywanga. (‘Obenyani’ ubusibuthengiswa nge R65/500 g ngonyaka ka 2018).

Ingxaki yobusi obungebubo zime bubini: ingxaki yeze Mpilo neyezezimali. Ubusi obungebubo obuneswekile eyongeziweyo bungane galelo elingelilo kwimpilo (kumanqanaba eswekile yomzimba) kubathengi, ingakumbi abanesifo seswekile. Okwesibini, amaxabiso asezantsi obusi obungebubo yenza kubenzima kubagcini nyosi beli okokuba bakhuphisane.

Abathengi bacebiswa okokuba bafunde imibhalo ngoku qwalasela xa uthenga ubusi obenziwe kweli lo Mzantsi Afrika khangela amagama abhalwe okokuba iveliswe eMzantsi ‘Produced in South Africa’ kunezibhalo ezibhalwe okokuba ipakishwe eMzantsi Afrika ‘Packaged in South Africa’.

Uvavanyo olu lula emalenziwe ekhaya: xuba umlinganiselo ofanayo wobusi kunye ne methylated spirits. Ubusi (bokwenene) buzakwehla buyokuma ezantsi, logama ubusi obungebubo buzakuxubeka nezi zikhankanyiweyo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie