Khwalithi ya Vulombe na Switirhisiwa

© Waugsberg
Vulombe i swihalaki leswi tshapukaka swonyanganya leswi endliwaka hi tinyoxi ta vulombe xikan’we na switsotswana swin’wana, kusuka eka nectar ya swimilani swin’wani naswona yinga kumeka hi swiyimo swohambana hambana-kusuka eka xivumbeko lexi halakaka kuya eka khirimi kuya eka muhlovo wo vonikela kuya eka wa buraweni wo dzwihala, laha kungana kumbe kurihava swiphemu swa honeycomb.

Ku tlhelela endzhaku kuya fika kwalomu ka 4 000 wa malembe kuya eka ti hieroglyphs e Egypt leti kombaka vutomi bya tinyoxi, vulombe akuri xona xilo xin’we xonyanganya lexi axitiviwa hi munhu kuringana malembe lawa yotala. Ku tsakela ku hlayisa tinyoxi swisungule hi malembe yava 1792 endzhaku kaloko kutava ku humesiwe buku ya tinyoxi na vulombe leyi ayi tsariwe hi Francois Huber, vutivi wa swa ntumbuluko loyi anga voni naswona hi malembe yava 1850’s mufundhisi wale Amerika Lorenzo Langstroth u tumbuluxe baku rosungula leri ari kota ku susiwa eka ndzhawu yin’we kuya eka yin’wana, muxaka lowu wahatirhisiwaka kufikela namuntlha.

Switandadi swa Vulombe

Milawu ya sweswi ya tiko ra Afrika Dzonga, va Agricultural Product Standards Act, 1990 (Act No. 119 of 1990) va hlamusela ti grade timbirhi – choice grade na industrial grade – eka vulombe lebyi halakaka, vulombe bya cream na vulombe bya comb. Milawu leyi lawulaka khwalithi hiku vekiwa ka levele ya swihlawulekisi swinwana kufana na nhlayo ya fructose ya vulombe kuya eka glucose yakona, ku fuwa ka yona na HMF hydroxymethylfurfural leyi kumekaka eka vulombe naswona yitlhela yi kombeta khwalithi ya vulombe.

Muhlovo na Nantswo wa Vulombe

Khwalithi ya vulombe ayina mhaka na muhlovo. Muhlovo wa vulombe wuya hi nectar ya laha byi sukaka kona naswona kungava kuri ka mati lawa yanga basa kuya eka buraweni wo dzwihala kuya eka ntima.

Xikombiso, vulombe lebyi vonikelaka hi muhlovo byingava byi sukela eka mabilomu ya misinya ya mihandzu, kasi lebyi bya xitshopani byingava byi huma eka nectar ya mabilomu ya ma avocado kumbe eka mabilomu yale nhoveni.

National Honey Board leyi kumekaka e US yi hlamusela leswaku, kufana ka swona, nantswo na nuhelo wa vulombe swiya hi laha nectar yi humaka kona. Vulombe bya avocado byitava na nantswo wa botere leyinga fuwa kasi vulombe lebyinga humelerisiwa kusuka eka muxaka wa Eucalyptus byinga kombeta ku hambana eka minantswo yakona, kambe hi xitalo yina nantswo lowu twalaka onge wuna murhi. Leswi hambanyisaka leswi, hileswaku vulombe lebyinga endliwa kusuka eka mabilomu ya misinya ya mihandzu byitava na nantswo woka wunga karihi kuya eka lowu wungana mihandzu nyana. Vulombe bya blueberry byina muhlovo woya eka xitshopani na nantswo lowu hetisekeke. Vulombe bya acacia byile xikarhi naswona bya tsokombela byitlhela byiva na nhlayo yale hansi ya sucrose kasi vulombe lebyi sukaka eka lucerne a byi nyanganyi ngopfu kutlula tinxaka letinwani ta vulombe. Vulombe lebyi endliweke kusuka eka nectar ya mabilomu ya canola lawa endlaka tindzoho hiku hatlisa, hixitalo endzeni ka baku.

Tinxaka ta Vulombe

Vulombe lebyinga endliwangiki nchumu abyise kufumetiwa, ku hlutiwa kumbe kususiwa swinwana naswona byi kahle swinene eka vahlayisi vantshwa va tinyoxi, tani hi leswi byinga laveki kuhisiwa ko durha kumbe muchini wo byi hluta. Byi tlhela byiva na pollen ya tinyoxi, leyinga henhla hiti amino acids byitlhela byiva na swinwana leswi vuyerisaka.

Vulombe lebyinga endliwangiki nchumu, hambiswiritano, byiva mapapa, byi vila kutani byiva tindzoho. Vuhumelerisi endzhaku ka sweswo bya nonoka naswona byingava nati bacteria.

Vulombe bya ntolovelo kumbe lebyi xavisiwaka byingava byi virisiwile. Ku virisiwa kuva kuri ku dlaya ti bacteria hiku kufumetiwa ka swiendliwa swa swakudya kuya eka 70℃ kutani byi horisiwa hiku hatlisa. Ku kufumetiwa ka vulombe swi endla leswaku swi olova ku sefa kutani byi cheriwa e bodlheleni naswona swihumesa vulombe lebyinga basa lebyinga vumbeki magadi.

‘Creamed honey’ i vulombe lebyinga vumbana kahle, byi lulamisiwa kuva byiva eka xivumbeko xa cream lexi fanaka lexi kotaka ku toteleka.

‘Cut comb honey’ swivula honeycomb leyingana vulombe, lebyinga tsemiwa kutani byi pakiwa.

‘Honeydew honey’ swivula vulombe byin’wana na byin’wana bya dextrorotatory. Leswi swivula leswaku vulombe byi endliwaka hiku humesiwa ka chukela kusuka swimilani ehandle ka mabilomu, kambe swinga tlhela swivula leswaku vulombe se byi katsiwile na syrup na chukele rin’wana, tani hileswi chukele leringa eka vulombe lebyingariki bya ntiyiso rihambanaka na leringa eka chukele ra ntiyiso.

Vulombe bya Mānuka byi endliwe kusuka eka nectar ya mabilomu ya swinsinyani swa Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium), ximilani lexi tumbulukaka e tikweni ra New Zealand. Vulombe bya Mānuka byi tekiwa byiri lebyo hlawuleka naswona byina ti antibacterial leti hlawulekeke xikan’we na vuswikoti byo horisa swilondza.

Swinwiwa Leswingana Vulombe

Vulombe byi nyangany kutlula chukele naswona byinga tirhisiwa tani hi xiyimela chukele eka swinwiwa swofana nati cocktails, iced tea, swinwiwa swo hisa na swinwiwa swa mihandzu. Vulombe byi fanele ku katsiwa na mati-hiku tirhisa nhlayo yo ringana ha xin’we. Virisa nkatsakanyo lowu kantsongo kufikela loko vulombe byi nwokelana na mati. Nkatsakanyo lowu wunga hlayisiwa kuringana mavhiki ya mbirhi.

Xinwiwa xale Scotland xa Drambuie i byalwa lebyinga endliwa hi whiskey, vulombe, swipayisisi na mitsembyani, loko byala byi virisiwe eka nkatsakanyo wa vulombe, xivirisi na mati. Ntumbuluko wa byalwa lebyi wutlhelela endzhaku ka malembe yotala laha muvumbi wa swikhuwani wale China kusuka eka malembe yava 7000 B.C. Byala lebyingana nkatsakanyo wa mintsembyana na swipayisisi byi tshembiwa kuva byi tshungula ntshikelelo xikan’we naku antswisa mpfuvelo.

Xana i yini Vulombe Byoka Byingari bya Mampela?

Hi 2018, kukumeke leswaku vulombe byoka byingari nya ntiyiso abyi xavisiwa e Afrika Dzonga. Vulombe lebyi byingava byi tumbuluxiwe kwala kaya, hambi leswi vulombe byo tala bya laha Afrika Dzonga byi humaka e tikweni ra China.

Muhumelerisi wa laha kaya, u lhamusela leswaku vulombe byoka byingari bya ntiyiso byi endliwa hiku katsiwa ka vulombe bya ntiyiso na syrup ya swifaki, mova kumbe chukele ra rhayisi. Maendlelo lawa ya vuriwa “adulteration”.

Ku cheriwa ka syrup ya chukele kumbe mati eka vulombe bya ntiyiso swi pfumelela vahumelerisi ku xavisa vulombe lebyingariki bya ntiyiso hi nxavo wale hansi loko ku pimanyisiwa na vulombe bya ntiyiso. (Vulombe bya mampela byi xavisa kwalomu ka R65/500g hi 2018).

Mhaka leyi ya vulombe byoka byingari bya ntiyiso byi hikambiri: rihanyu na timali. Vulombe byoka byingari bya ntiyiso lebyi engeteleriweke chukele byina xiave xo biha swinene eka rihanyu ra vanhu, ngopfu ngopfu vanhu lava vabyaka mavabyi ya chukele. Xavumbirhi, nxavo wale hansi wa vulombe byoka byingari bya mampela wu endla leswaku switika kuva vahlayisi va tinyoxi va phikizana.

Vatirhisi va tsundzuxiwa kuva va hlaya kahle swiphephani leswinga damarhetiwa eka swibye leswinga chela chukele. Ku xava vulombe bya laha kaya e Afrika Dzonga u fanele ku languta marito lawa yanga tsariwa leswaku ‘produced in South Africa’ kungari kuva kutsariwe ‘packaged in South Africa’.

Xikambelo xo olova xale kaya: katsa swiphemu swimbirhi leswi ringanaka swa vulombe na xipiriti. Vulombe bya ntiyiso byita dzikela ehansi, laha vulombe lebyingariki bya ntiyiso byita katsana na xipiriti.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni