Lizinga le Luju kanye Netintfo

© Waugsberg
Luju yintfo lenongotelako letiyile ngekwakhiwa, tinyosi teluju kanye naletinye tilwanyana letincane, kusuka ekungoteleni kwetitjalo futsi kungatfolwa ngetindlela letiningi – kusuka kulokugijimako noma lokusamhloshana salubisi ngekuvela kuya kulokukhanyako na nsundvu lotopele ngelibala, ngetintfo noma ngaphandle kwetincetu tetimvutfu.

Ngekubuyela emuva ngetinsuku lekungaba yiminyaka letinkhulungwane letine kuma hieroglyphs lase Gibhithe lakhombisa imphilo yetinyosi, luju nguyona intfo lenongotelako lebeyikadze yatiwa emadvodzeni iminyaka leminingi. Kutsandza kugcinwa kwetinyosi kwacala ngemnyaka wa 1792 ngemuva kwencwadzi lebeyikhuluma ngetinyosi neluju leyabhalwa ngu Francois Huber, imphumphutse yemvelo futsi ngemnyaka wa 1850 umshumayeli wase Mellika Lorenzo Langstroth watfutfukisa libhokisi letinyosi lelihambako, umtsetfo losasetjentiswa nalamuhla.

Lizinga le Luju

Umtsetfo lokhona nanyalo wala Ningizimu Afrika, Sento Selizinga Letintfo tekwakhiwa ngeKulima, ngemnyaka wa 1990, (Act No. 119 ya 1990) ikhuphukisa tigaba letimbili – kukhetfwa kwesigaba kanye nesigaba sekusebentela – kweluju lolungemanti, luju lolunekhilimu kanye neluju lwetimvutfu. Umtsetfo wengamela lizinga ngekubeka tigaba tetintfo letitsite kufana ne luju lwe fructose kuya ekukaleni kwe glucose, kushona kanye ne HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural lekhona kuluju kanye nalokukhombisa lizinga lweluju) lolutfwelwe.

Libala kanye neSinongo se Luju

Lizinga lweluju alunantfo yekwenta ngelibala. Libala leluju lushiyana ngendlela yalokunongotelako futsi lingahambela kusuka emantini lamhlophe kuya kunsundvu lotopele noma lokucishe kubemunyama.

Kufana nekutsi, luju lwelibala lelikhanyako lingachamuka ekuchakateni kwalokunongotelako, libe luju lelibala lelimnyama lingabe lakheke kusuka kulokunongotelako kwemakotapeni lachakatako noma timbali tesiganga.

Libhodi le Luju lwe Sive loluse US lichaza kutsi, ngekufana, kuvela kanye nesinongo se luju kushiyana ngendlela yalokunongotelako. Luju lwemakotapeni litoba nekuvela lokuvutsiwe kwa bhatha libe luju lolwakheke kusuka etintfweni te Eucalyptus tingakhombisa tintfo letiningi letehlukene tekuvelela, kepha tivame kuba nesinongo lesicinile ngekuvela lokuncane kwemitsi. Ngekubukisisa kahle ngaloku, luju lolwakheke ngetimbali letinongotelako letinenekuvela lokubutsakatsaka nekuvela lokuncane lokuphansi kwekunongotela. Luju lwemagungumence laluhlata sasibhakabhaka kulula ngelibala nesinongo lesisandingilizi. Luju lwe acacia lusemkhatsini futsi lunongotela kakhulu nge sucrose letfwele libe luju lwe Lucerne linekunongotela lokuncane kunaletinye tinhlobo teluju. Luju lolwakhiwe ngembali ye canola ngetinhlavana letinongotelako ngekushesha lokukhulu, kuvamile ngisho nakumabhokisi etinyosi.

Tinhlobo te Luju

Luju loluluhlata alukaze lwa shisiswa, lwakhiwa noma lwavutsiswa futsi lulungele kubagcini betinyosi labasha, njengoba akudzingeki kushisiswa ngalokudulile kanye netintfo tekushisisa. Luphindze lutfwale imphuphu lemtfubi yetinyosi, lephakeme nge amino acid kanye naletinye tinongo letitfolwako.

Luju loluluhlata lunga, nomakunjalo, lube nemafu, lugucule emakhemikhali phindze lubetinhlavu (lucine). Lokwakhiwa ngaleyondlela kwenteka kancane futsi kungatfwala emagciwane.

Luju lwentsengo noma lolujwayelwe kungahle kube lishisisiwe. Kushisisa yindlela yekubulala emagciwane ngekufutfumeta kudla lokwakhiwe kube ngu 70°C bese phindze uyakupholisa. Kushisisa luju kulenta lube lula kutsi lecengeke phindze lufakwe emabhodleleni bese kwakheka luju loluhlobile, lolungeke lome.

‘Luju lwe khilimu’ luju lolomile lolulula, lwakhiwe kutsi lube nekhilimu lefanako ngekuvelela lokutsambile ngekusakatwa.

‘Juba luju lwetikhala’ kusho lujulwetikhala neluju, losekujutjiwe kwase kuyapakishwa.

‘Lujulwematolo’ lokusho noma nguliphi luju lwe idextrorotatory. Loku kusho kutsi loluju lwakhiwe etintfweni tashukela tetincenye tetitjalo kunaleto tetimbali, kepha kungaphindze kuchaze kutsi luju selihlanganisiwe (lihlanganiswe nesitaputapu kanye nalabanye boshukela) njengoba letintfo letincane letingahlukaniseka ku ‘luju lolungasilo’ tehlukile kunaleto teluju mbamba.

Luju lwe Mānuka lwakhiwe kusuka ekunongoteleni kwembali ye lihlatsi le Mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium), sitjalo lesiyindalo eNew Zealand. Luju lwe Mānuka litsatfwa njengalelikhulu futsi linetintfo letimcoka tekunakekela tilondza nemagciwane.

Tinatfo letineLuju

Luju lunongotela kakhulu kunashukela futsi lungasetjentiswa esikhundleni sashukela etinatfweni tasematafuleni, kumatiya labandzako, kutinatfo letishisako kanye netinatfo-tetitselo. Luju kumele libhicwe nemanti – kusetjentiswe tincenye letilinganako (sisindvo lesifanako) ngasinye. Shisisa lolokuhlanganisiwe luze loluju luncibilike lube ngemanti. Lolokuhlanganisiwe kungagcinwa kuze kubengemaviki lamabili.

Sinatfo sema Scottish iDrambuie tjwala lobakhiwe nge whiskey, luju, tintfo letincane kanye nemacembe, ibe imead iyintfo legucukako lehlanganisiwe yeluju, iyeast nemanti. Imvelaphi ye mead ingabuyiselwa emuva kumavasi lamabhodo ema Shayina kusuka ku 7000 B.C. Emacembe kanye netinongo-te mead letifakwe entfweni lemanti kutsenjwa kutsi telapha kukhatsateka phindze titfutfukise kugaya kwesisu.

Yini Luju Lolungasilo?

Ngemnyaka wa 2018, kwatfolwa kutsi luju lolungasilo lwatsengiswa eNingizimu Afrika. Lolu luju lolungasilo ungatfola kutsi lwalukadze lukhicitwe landzaweni, noma nje luju loluningi lwalwa Ningizimu Afrika lutsengwa/luchamuka eChina.

Umkhiciti wasendzaweni, Peel’s Honey, uchaza kutsi luju lolungasilo lwakhiwa ngeluju sibili nesitaputapu semnyani wemmbila, shukela noma shukela welilayisi. Lokukwakha kubitwa nge “Kuhlanganiswa kwalokusemtsetfweni nalokungekho emtsetfweni”.

Kwengeka sitaputapu sashukela noma ngisho nemanti kulunu lolungilo kuvumela bakhiciti kutsi batsengise loluju lolungasilo ngelinani lentsengo lephansi kunaleyo yeluju lolungilo. (‘Lolungilo’ luju lolutsengiswa luhambele ku maRandi lamashumi lasitfupha nesihlanu nge magremu lamakhulu lasihlanu ngemnyaka wa 2018).

Lenkinga ngeluju lolungasilo tintfo-letimbili: kuphila kanye nemnotfo. Luju lolungasilo lelinashukela lowengetiwe lungaba yintfo lengalungi emphilweni (kanye netigaba tashukela) talabamudlako, ikakhulu labanesifo sashukela. Kwesibili, kwehla kwelinani leluju lolungasilo kwenta kubelukhulu kubagcinibetinyosi basendzaweni kutsi bacudzelane.

Badly bayacwayiswa kutsi bafundze lokubhaliwe ngekunakekela. Kutsenga luju lwase Ningizimu buka emagama latsi ‘yakhiwe eNingizimu Afrika’ njengekutsi ‘kupakishwe eNingizimu Afrika’.

Luhlolo lolumelula lwasekhaya: hlanganisa tincenye letilinganako teluju kanye nesipirithi. Luju lolungilo (mbamba) lindanda ngetulu, libe lelo lelingasilo litohlangana nalesipirithi.

Translated by Phindile Malotana