Ikwalithi Yeliju kanye Nemikhiqizo Yalo

© Waugsberg
Iliju limamanzi adege enziwa zinyosi kanye nezinye iinunwana, ezilenza nge-nectar begodu lingatholwa ngendlela ezahlukeneko –kusukela kweligijimako ukuya kwelingathi lisakhrimu ukufikela kwelinombala onzotho elinencephu ezinamakhekheba nelinganazo.

Kusukela eminyakeni eyadlulako eyi-4 000 ukuya kuma-hieroglyphs weGibhide atjengisa ipilo yenyosi, iliju bekungiyo yodwa into eyenza umnambitheko osudu nayifakwa ekudleni egade yaziwa babantu.Ikareko lokufuya iinyosi lathoma ngonyaka ka-1792 ngemva kokobana kutlolwe incwadi ngenyosi kanye neliju itlolwe ngu- Francois Huber, umfundisi we America ongaboniko u-Lorenzo Langstroth watlama indlu yokuthoma yenyosi ekhambako, nekuyinto esasetjeniswa nanamhlanje.

Iintandadi Zeliju

Umthetho wanamhlanje weSewula Africa i-Agricultural Product Standards Act, 1990 (Act No. 119 yonyaka ka-1990) ubeke amagrayidi amabili, i-choice grade kanye ne-industrial grade, iliju elimamanzi, eliyikhrimu kanye nelinamakhekheba-Umthetho obusa ukubekwa kweleveli ethize yokuziphatha efana ne-fructose etholakala elijwini, kanye ne-HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) ekhona elijwini esitjengiso sekhwalithi eselijwini.

Umbala Weliju kanye Nokunambitheka Kwalo

Ikhwalithi yeliju ayinanto eyihlanganisa nombala walo. Umbala weliju uya ngokobana ziyithethephi i-nectare begodu ungahluka ekuseleni ekubeni mhlophe njengamanzi ukuya ukubeni nzotho okunga kunzima.

Isibonelol, iliju elinombala okhanyako livela entjalweni ezimalamula, lokha elingathi linzima livela emithini ye-avocado nanyana emathuthumbeni womango.

Ibhodi ye-US i-honey board itlhadlhula bona ukunambitheka kweliju liya ngokobana umthombo we-nectar uvelaphi. Iliju elivela ku-avocado linambitheka inga yibhatha lokha elivele entjalweni ze-Eucalyptus litjengisa ukunambitheka okwahlukahlukeneko,kodwana esikhathini esinengi linomnambitheko oqinileko ozwakala inga sihlahla. Iliju elenziwe ngentjalo ezihlumako zamalamula linomnambitheko ohlangana nendawo ozwakala inga lilamula kancani. Iliju le-blueberry linombala osarhawuda. Iliju elenziwe nge-acacia lisudu khulu begodu line-sucrose encani lokha elenziwe nge-lucern lingasisudu khulu kunemihlobo eminye weliju. Iliju elenziwe ngamathuthumbo we-canola liqina msinya kwesinya isikhathi liqina lisese ngezindlini zenyosi.

Imihlobo Yeliju

Iliju elihlaza elingakafuthunyezwa, lifanele ukusetjenziswa bafuyi benyosi, ngombana alitlhogi ukutjhisiswa okubizako kanye nemitjhini yokulisefa. Limumethe i-pollen yenyosi, enezinga eliphezulu le-amino acid kanye nezinye iinthako eziletha inzuzo.

Iliju elihlaza, nanyana kunjalo, libenamafu, liqine nanyana libile. Ukukhiqizwa kwalo kubuthaka begodu kungamumatha amabhakutheriya.

Iliju elijwayelekileeko nanyana elikhiqizwe ngomncopho wokuthengiswa lingabulawa amagziwani ngokulifuthumeza ku-70℃ bese lipholiswa buthaka. Ukufuthumeza iliju kwenza bona kube lula ukulisefa belifakwe emabhodleleni begodu kukhiqiza iliju elinganazinto elingaqiniko.

Iliju eliyikhrimu liliju elifeyini,elenziwe labayikhrimu elirhona ukuzeseka

I-‘Cut comb honey’ llitjho bona amakhekheba wenyosi eneliju elikathwe lapakwa.

I-‘Honeydew honey’ litjho bona iliju eli-dextrorotatory, Okutjho bona iliju lenziwe ngeswigiri ebuya entjalweni kunemathuthumbeni kwaphela, kodwana kungatjho bona iliju sele lihlanganiswe neswigiri kanye ne-stroop ngombana izinga leswigiri eselijwini mbumbulu lihlukile kunalelo eliselijwini elimsulwa.

Iliju le-Mānuka lenziwe nge-nectar yathuthumbo we-Mānuka bush (Leptospermum scoparium), okusitjalo sendabuko se-New Zealand. Iliju le-Mānuka libonwa njenge nto encono honey begodu likhethekile ngombana lirhona ukubulala amagciwani lelaphe nenlonda.

Iinselo Neliju

Iliju lisude kuneswigiri begodu lingasetjenziswa njengesijamiseleli seswigiri lokha nakwenziwa ama-cocktail, ice-tea, iinselo ezitjhisako kanye nenselo ezenziwe ngenthelo. Iliju kufanele lihlanganiswe namanzi ngokulingana (umthamo olinganako). Futhumeza ihlanganisela leyo lize lincibilekele emanzini iliju. Ungabeka ihlanganisela leyo iimveke ezimbili.

Isiselo sabantu be-Scott i-Drambuie butjwala obenziwe nge-whiskey, iliju, amaspayisi kanye namakhambi, lokha i-mead ibiliswe ngehlanganisela yeliju, i-isti namanzi. Imvelaphi ye-mead ibuya kude kusukela emigwaleni yama-China yeminyaka yabo-7 000 BC. I-mead ehlanganiswe namakhambi kanye nentjalo kukholelwa bona yelapha ukugandeleleka ngokomkhumbulo begodu yenza ncono ukugayeka kokudla.

Linjani Iliju Elingasi Ngelamambala?

Ngonyaka ka-2018, kwatholwa bonna kuthengiswa iliju elingasi ngeleqiniso eSewula Africa. Iliju elingasi ngeleqinisweli lalikhiqizwa lapha, nanyana iSewula Africa iliju elinengi elisenarerhei le livele eenarheni zangaphandle khulukhulu ne-China. Abakhiqizi benarha beliju, i-Peel honey, itlhadlhule bona iliju elingasi ngelamambala, lenziwa ngokuhlanganisa iliju lamambala kanye ne-stroop, umoba nanyana ireyisi eyiswigiri. Okubizwa bona yi-“adulteration”.

Ukufaka iswigiri nanyana aanzi elijwini lamambala kuvumela abakhiqizi balo kobana bathengise ilijweli ngamanani aphasi kunalelo elisulwa (Iliju lamabala gade lithengiswa nge-R65/500G ngonyaka ka-2018).

Indaba ngeliju elingasi ngelamambala zimbili: zepilo kanye nezomnotho Iliju elingasi ngelamabala elifakwe iswigiri lingagulisa abathengi khulukhulu obanobulwelwe beswigiri. Kwesibili, nalithengeka khulu kutjho bona akusilo lamambala begodu kwenza bona kube budisi kubafuyi benyosi kobana bathengise labo.

Abathengi bayeleliswa bona bafunde amalebuli ngokutjheja. Ukuthenga iliju lenarha le qala amagama atlolwe bona likhiqizwe eSewula Africa kunalayo atlolwe kobana lipakwe eSewula Africa.

Ukulihlola okulula okwenziwe eSewula Africa: Hlanganisa incenye elinganako yeliju kanye nespiridzi. Iliju elisulwa lamambala lizokuminza liye phasi, lokha elingasi ngelamambala lizokuhlangana nespiridzi.