Abantu Bokuqala e-Richtersveld

Ubufakazi Bokuqala

©Shem Compion
Ubufakazi bokuqala babantu baseNamaqualand naseRichtersveld bamelelwa ngamathuluzi angamatshe, njengamazembe kanye nembazo ezenziwe ngezandla ezivela etsheni eliyimbulungana. Lezi zixhobo zokuqala zesikhathi samatshe zihlotshaniswa nezinhlobo ezahlukene ze-Homo, njengeHomo habilis, u-Homo erectus no-Homo sapiens, abahlala phakathi kweminyaka eyizigidi eziyi 2.5 noma izinkulungwane ezingamakhulu amabili edlule. Kuze kube manje, akukho mfuyo yabantu eyatholakala kule ngxenye yomhlaba.

Isikhathi samadwala sangaphakathi (Middle Stone Age) kuthiwa ibanga phakathi kweminyaka engu-200 000 no-35 000 eminyakeni edlule. Le nkathi ibonisa ushintsho lokwakhiwa kwamathuluzi olukhombisa ubuchwepheshe obuningi lapho isiliva yamatshe ibazelwa edwaleni kuze kutholakale inkemba noma amaphoyinti.

Izibonelo eziningi zala mathuluzi amatshe amancane atholakale eNamaqualand, enezindawo eziningana zokuvubukula e-Richtersveld equkethe inani elikhulu locwecwana nengxenye zamadwala, okubonisa ukuthi ‘izimboni zamathuluzi'. I-West Coast National Park, eduze neLangebaan, iqukethe amathambo aguquka aba amatshe ngokuphawulekayo okwenziwe ngomunye wethu, ukhokho we-Homo sapien ngalesi sikhathi.

Ukuhlala Kwabantu E-Richtersveld

©Shem Compion
Isikhathi samatshe sokugcina (Later Stone Age) sihambisana nokuvela kwe-Homo sapiens sapiens, okungabantu abanamuhla njengami nawe. Amathuluzi ahlotshaniswa nalesi sikhathi ahlanjululwa kakhulu futhi aqondene nokusebenza. Zihlanganisa inkemba namaphoyinti, eziningi zazo ezazihlanganiswe nokhuni ukuze zenze imikhonto noma imimese. Amathambo namazinyo eNdlovu kwasetshenziselwa ukwakha izinkemba, izinaliti ngisho nama ihhuku.

Izindawo eziningana zokuvubukula eRichtersveld (ezineminyaka engaphezu kwezinkulungwane ezintathu edlule) zinikeza ubufakazi bale hlobo lobuchwepheshe. Isivumelwano esengeziwe sokuhlala kwabantu sitholakala ngesimo samathambo esilwane esasetshenziswa, iziko elimnyama kanye nezinsalela zodoti okuhlanganisa ingxenye zemizimba yabantu, etholakala eduze nogu.

Ngakho-ke, ngokusho kobufakazi bemivubukulo, abazingeli abaqoqayo abahlala emakhaya bahlala eNamaqualand naseRichtersveld iminyaka engaphezu kuka-kwezinkulungwane ezingamakhulu amabili. Kwakungeke kube lula ukuphila. Amanzi ayengeke atholakale (kukhona ubufakazi bokuthi amagobolondo amaqanda asetshenziswa njengeziqukathi zesitoreji) futhi kwakuhlale kunengozi yokuzingela okudlulele. Kodwa, ngesikhathi esisodwa, abantu babonakala beqonda ukuthi ukusinda kwabo kuxhomeke ekusebenzisaneni nemvelo ngendlela eqhubekayo.

Translated by Nsika Khoza