Abantu Bokuqala Base Richtersveld

Ubungqina Bokuqala

©Shem Compion
Ubungqina bokuqala babantu eNamaqualanda kunye nase Richtersveld bubonakala ngezixhobo zamatye, ezifana nezinto zokunqunqa, amazembe enziwe ngamatye. Ezi zixhobo zokuqala zangexesha le Stone Age, zayamaniswa nabantu abohlukileyo ababebizwa ngee Homo; abafana neeHomo habilis, Homo erectus kwakunye neeHomo sapiens. Aba bantu bokuqala babephila kwiminyaka ephakathi kwezigidi ezi 2.5 kunye neminyama engama 200 000 eyadlulayo.

Ukuzokuthi gaa ngoku, akukabikho mathambo abantu asele efunyenwe kulendawo. Kuthiwa ixesha le Middle Stone Age, laliphakathi kweminyaka engama 200 000 kunye nengama 35 000 eyadlulayo. Eli lixesha lempucuko, nalapho abantu basuka ekwenzeni izixhobo ezenziwe ngamatye batshintshela kwizixhobo ezenziwe ngetekhnoloji; nalapho iingceba zamatye zaziqhekezwa ematyeni ukuze kwenziwe iimela, imikhonto kunye nezinye izinto ezibukhali.

Mininzi imizekelo yezixhobo ezincincane ezenziwa ngamatye, eyafunyanwa e Namaqualand. Kwaphinda kwafunyanwa umgubo wamatye kunye neengceba zamatye eRichtersveld. Oku kuntama ukuba ezindawo yayiyi ‘mizi mveliso yezixhobo’. iWest Coast National Park, kufuphi neLangebaan nayo ikwaqulathe izinto ezibambekayo ezashiywa ngookhokho bethu be Homo sapiens ababephila ngeli xesha.

Intlalo Yabantu base Richtersveld

©Shem Compion
Ixesha le Later Stone Age lingqamana nokubakho kweeHomo sapiens, neyayingabantu abakhiwe njengam nawe. Izixhobo ezayanyaniswa nelithuba, zenzelwe imisebenzi ethile. Ziquka iimela,izinto zokubhola imingxuma kunye nezinye ezibukhali, zonke ke ezi zikhali zazibotshelelwa emakhunini ukuzwe kwenziwe amabhozo okanye imikhonto. Amathambo kunye namaphondo ayesetyenziswa ukwenza iimela, iinaliti nkqu nehuku zokuloba. Uninzi lweziza ezazihlala abantu kwindawo yase Richtersveld (ezineminyaka angaphaya kwama 3000 eyadlulayo) zinika ubungqina balentlobo ye theknoloji.

Obunye ubungqina bentlalo yabantu bufunyenwe kumathambo ezilwanyana acoliweyo, amabala amnyama ekwakubaselwa kuwo kakunye neemingxunya yakudala dala yokulahla inkunkuma. Lemingxunya yafunyanwa ngaselunxwemeni izele lilindle labantu kunye nenye intlobo kadoti. Ngoko ke ngokobungqina bophando ngezentlalo, abantu ababephila ngokuzingela babehlala eNamaqualand kunye nase Richtersveld kangange sithuba seminyaka engaphaya kwama 200 000.

Qinisekileyo ubomi babungekho lula. Amanzi inoba ayenqabile kukho ubungqina bokuba amakhoba amaqanda enciniba ayesetyenziselwa ukugcina amanzi. Kwaye kwakusoloko kukho umngcipheko wokuzingela zonke iinyamakazi. Kodwa kukhangeleka ngathi aba bantu babekuqonda ukuba ukuphila kwabo kuxhomekeke ekusebenzisaneni nendalo ngendlela eyiyo. Kwaye babengaxhaphazi okanye barhwaphilize okubangqongileyo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana