Abahlali abasha e-Vredefort

© Jacques Marais

Okokuqala okuzovela

Izinto zazinhle ngokuthula kunsimu ephezulu yaseNingizimu Afrika iningi lama-1700. Khona-ke, ngawo-1800, kwafika amaqembu amasha amabili abahlali futhi aphendulela konke. Owokuqala ukuvela endaweni yesehlakalo kwakuyisizwe esibizwa ngokuthi iMatabele (kamuva isiNdebele). Bebeyingxenye yesizwe samaZulu ngaphansi kweNkosi enamandla uShaka. Kodwa-ke, ngo-1824, uMengameli waseMatabele uMzilikazi waphikisana noShaka futhi wabaleka enyakatho kukaDrakenberg nezinkulungwane zabalandeli.

Matabele yayinamaqhawe anesibindi futhi ayesabekayo aqala ukuhlukumeza ngaphakathi kwendawo ethule njalo ephephile. Nakuba behlala eduze kwePitoli, amaqembu eMatebele ahlasela umhlaba futhi adala ukuphazamiseka okubanzi. Lesi sikhathi esiyinkimbinkimbi saziwa ngokuthi iDifaqane (ehlobene nalokho kodwa engafani ne-Mfecane, eyenzeka ezindaweni ezisogwini).

Iqembu lesibili

Iqembu lesibili lalihlukile.Babengabahlali abamhlophe ababelokhu behamba bevela eKapa kusukela ekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka. Abanye beza befuna ukuzijabulisa, abanye beyizithunywa zevangeli, abanye babengabazingeli abafuna inyama. Ekuqaleni, lezi zizwe ezingaqondakali zazibekezelelwa izizwe zendawo, ezazithengisa nazo futhi zahamba nazo ekuhambeni kwabo ukuzingela endaweni yangasese. Ngo-1834, Nokho, Uhambo olukhulu lwaqala futhi abantu abaningi abamhlophe baqala ukuza.

Lolu hambo lwangenxa yokuthi amabhunu ebengathandi ukuthi abelungu bahola kanjani (nokuqedwa kobugqila) eKapa, futhi abalimi besibhunu banquma ukushiya ikoloni ukuze baqale izwe elisha lapho bekwazi ukubusa khona.Abantu abamhlophe basakaza ezweni lonke befuna indawo abangayithanda. Elinyelalamaqembu, ngaphansi kokuhola kukaAndries Hendrik Potgieter lafika endaweni yaseVredefort ngo-1836 futhi laqala ukusungula amapulazi amakhulu, kwaholela ukucindezeleka kwabantu bendawo. Kwakukhona ukuhweba, kodwa ngenxa yokuthi izibhamu zaba yizivikelo eziwusizo ngokumelene neMatabele. Noma kunjalo, isimo sasinezinkinga.

Ukuhlaselwa

Isimo saba bucayi ngemuva kwalowo nyaka lapho imindeni eminingi yamabhunu ibulawe yiqembu laseMatabele, futhi izingane ezintathu zathunjwa.Lokhu kuhlasela kwenzeka enyakatho yoMfula iVaal, eduze nendawo edolobheni lanamuhla leParys. U-Andries Hendrik Potgieter uthukuthele futhi wathumela amaqembu amaningi okuphindisela aMatabele ngokubulawa kwabantu. Ngenxa yalokhu nokuhlaselwa okunye, uMzilikazi wagcina esuka esifundeni futhi wagxila enyakatho yeLimpopo ukuyosungula inhloko-dolobha entsha ngaseBulawayo.

I-Potch!

Ngo-1837, ngenkathi ebuya empini elwa neMatabele, uPotgieter wabona kuqala amabhange avundile eMfuleni waseMooi futhi wanquma ukuthi kuyoba yindawo enhle edolobheni. Ngo-1838, izitaladi zafakwa ngokucacile futhi kwakhiwa izindlu eziningana. Ngeshwa, inkathi yemvula ka-1840 ibonise ukuthi ukulungiswa kwasungulwa emgodini onamanzi amaningi,kodwa idolobha elisha lasungulwa masinyane endaweni engcono engaba amakhilomitha ayishumi nanye ezansi emgwaqeni ovela e-Oudedorp (idolobha elidala).

Ngemva kokuhamba ngamagama amaningi, lo mkhandlu ekugcineni wabizwa ngokuthi i-Potchefstroom (ecatshangwa ukuthi kungukungqubuzana 'kokusakaza kukaPeter Potgieter'). I-Potch (njengoba iyaziwa ngokujwayelekile) umasipala wokuqala wokuqhafaza enyakatho yoMfula iVaal. Ngemuva kokuthi kusayinwe iSivumelwano SakwaSand River ngo-1852, futhi yaba yinhloko-dolobha yokuqala yeZuid Afrikaanse Republiek (i-South African Republic noma i-Transvaal endala).

Njengoba kunjalo, kwakuyindawo ebaluleke kakhulu. Umongameli wokuqala we-ZAR wathembisa isifungo sakhe ePotch. Umthethosisekelo we-ZAR uhlelwe ePotch. I-Vierkleur (ifulegi elisemthethweni le-ZAR) laqala ukuma e-Potch. Iphephandaba lokuqala likaTransvaal lanyatheliswa ePotch. Futhi uthisha wokuqala enyakatho yeVaal wayesekelwe ePotch. Nazo Potch!
Ngeshwa, inhloko-dolobha ye-ZAR yathuthela ePitoli ngo-1860, iphuma ePotch emakhazeni. Idolobhana laqhubeka liba isikhungo esikhulu sezolimo, sezemigodi nezemfundo.