Abaphambukeli Abatsha eVredefort

© Jacques Marais

Abokuqala Ukuvela

Izinto zazithande ukuzola kwi Highveld yoMzantsi Afrika, kubukhulu beminyaka yoo 1700. Kwathi kusenjalo, ngeminyaka yoo 1800, athi amaqela amatsha abaphambukeli akufika yavela yonke into yangu phantsi phezulu.

Abokuqala ukufika yabaluhlanga lwase Afrika elubizwa ngaMatabele (ethubeni lwatshintsha lwangama Ndebele). Babekade beyingxenye yesizwe samaZulu phantsi kolawulo lwe Nkosi uShaka. Kodwa ke ngomnyaka ka 1824,uMzilikazi inkosi waxabana no Shaka waze wabalekela eDrakensberg elandelwa ngama waka-waka. Uhlanga lwaMatabele lwalunga magokra angoyikiyo kwaye ekhohlakele. La magokra aqhubeka nokudala ingxushungxushu kulo ngingqi yayikade izizolele. Nangona sebezinze ePitoli, amaqela aMatabele avunguzelisa iilali adala nophazamiseko kwiindawo ezininzi. Eli lixa leemfazwe laziwe njenge Difaqane (nehlobeneyo ne Mfecane kodwa ingasiyiyo, neyathi yona yenzeka kwimimandla eselunxwemeni).

Iqela Lesibini

Iqela lesibini logqada-mbekweni kweli ityeli lalingumbala owohlukileyo. Yayi ngabaphambukeli abamhlophe nababe jikeleza ukusuka eKolona ukusukela ekuqaleni kwe sentyuri. Bambi bafika bekhangela ubomi obutsha, bambi ingabefundisi, bambi ingabazingeli bekhangela iinyamakazi. Ekuqaleni aba bantu bangaqhelekanga banyanyezelwa ziintlanga zalendawo. Babenaniselana nabo maxa wambi bebakhapha naxa besiya kuzingela endle.

Ngomnyaka ka 1834, kwaqala iGreat Trek baya begaleleka ondlebe zikhany’ilanga. Le trek yayibangelwa kukunganeliseki kwamaBhulu yindlela amaNgesi alawula ngayo (kunye nokupheliswa kwamakhoboka) eKoloni. Aze amabhulu afuna ubomi bokuzikhethela agqiba ekubeni ayishiye ikoloni ukuze ayokuzisekela ilizwe lawo elitsha nalapho bazakuthi balawule khona. Iqela le Trekkers laya ligaleleka, lisanda embindini wommandla likhangela i-Eden.

Elinye lala maqela, nelaliphantsi kolawulo luka Andries Hendrik Potgieter lwafika kwinginqi yase eVredefort ngomnyaka ka 1836. Eli qela laqalisa ukulima iintsimi ezinkulu nto leyo yayinga thandisiswa ncam ngabantu balendawo. Kwabakho unaniselwano naxa kunjalo, kuba imiphu yamabhulu yayiluncedo ekulweni aMatabele. Noxa kwakunjalo, kwakusekho izikrokro.

Uhlaselo

Izinto zajiya ekuhambeni konyaka, ngethuba uninzi lweentsapho zamabhulu zabulawa luhlanga lwaMatabele olwalugqogqa. Abantwana abathathu bathinjwa Olu hlaselo lwenzeka kumntla womfula iVaal River, kufutshane kakhulu nedolophu ebizwa nge Parys namhlanje. U-Andries Hendrik Potgieter wayelugcwabevu ngumsindo, waze wathumela elakhe iqela ukuba liyokuhlasela aMatabele. Wayefuna ukubohlwaya ngokubulala abantu abaninzi ngaxeshanye. Ngenxa yoku kunye namanye amatyeli ohlaselo, uMzilikazi wafuduka kulengingqi waze wayokuzinza emntla Limpopo ukuze aseke ikomkhulu elitsha kufutshane nase Bulawayo.

Yi Potch!

Ngomnyaka ka 1837, ngethuba ebuya kwimfazwe yoloyiso kunye naMatabele, uPotgieter waqala ukuqaphela imifula etyebileyo ye Mooi (Entle) River wagqiba kwelokuba le ingayindawo elungileyo ukwakha idolophu Ngomnyaka ka 1838, izitalato zaphawulwa nezindlu eziliqela zokhiwa. Ngelishwa ilixa lonyaka elimanzi lika 1840, lwabonakalisa ukuba ledolophu isekelwe phezu komhlaba omanzi onomgxobhozo. Idolophu entsha yakhawuleza yasekwa kwibala elingcono malunga ne 11km ukusuka eOudedorp (Idolophu endala). Emva kokuthiywa amagama aliqela, lelali yade yabizwa nge Potchefstroom (kucingelwa ukuba lithetha ukuba ‘Umlambo wenkosi uPotgieter’).

I-Potch (njengoba isaziwa sisininzi) yabangumasipala wokuqala wamabhulu osemntla we Vaal River. Emva kokutyikitya isivumelwano se Sand River Convention ngomnyaka ka 1852, yaba likomkhulu lokuqala leZuid Afrikaanse Republiek (South African Republic okanye i old Transvaal). Yayi yiyindawo ebaluleke kakhulu. Umongameli wokuqala weZAR wathatha isifungo se ofisi yobumongameli ePotch. Umgaqo siseko we ZAR wabhalwa kanye apha ePotch. I-Vierkleur (iflefi esesikweni yase ZAR) yaqala ukuxhonya ePotch. Iphephandaba lokuqala lase Transvaal lakhutshwa ePotch. Kwaye nomfundisi ntsapho wokuqala emntla Vaal wayehlala ePotch. Thatha Potch!

Ngelishwa, ikomkhulu le ZAR lafudukela ePitoli ngomnyaka ka 1860, lishiya iPotch ithe ca izisini. Le dolophu yaphuhla njengenkulu yona indawo yezolimo, yokwambiwo mgodi, kunye neyezemfundo.