Vatshami vantshwa e Vredefort

© Jacques Marais

Ku sungula ku vonaka

Swilo a swi horile swinene e Highveld ya Afrika Dzonga eka malembe yotala yava 1700s. Kutani, hiva 1800s, mintlawa yimbirhi ya vatshami yifikile kutani yi cinca swilo.

Wo sungula kuhumelela akuri rixaka xa ma-African ra Matabele (endzhaku Ndebele). Lava avari xiphemu xa rixaka ra ma Zulu ehansi ka hosi ya matimba King Shaka. Hambiswiritano, hi 1824, hosi ya Matabele chief Mzilikazi utlulane milenge na Shaka kutani a tsutsumela e Drakensberg na magidi gidi ya valandzeri. Rixaka ra Matabele ariri na xivindzi naswona ariri tingwhazi leti tingaya emahlweni ku karhata eka tindzahawu ta vona. Hambi leswi ava tshame ekusuhi nale Pretoria, Rixaka ra Matabele rikarhatile tiko hinkwaro laha ringa hangalasa tinxaka. Nkarhi lowu wa kutika wutiveka tani hi Difaqane (leswingana vuxaka kambe aswi fani na Mfecane, leswi aswihumelela eka tindzhawu tale kusuhi nale lwandle).

Ntlawa wa vumbirhi

Ntlawa wa vumbirhi ku fika akuri wa rixaka rohambana, hivula ku hambana ka ntiyiso. Lava avari valungu lava ava suka e Cape kusukela loko kusungule century. Van’wana vatile hiku lava kuringeta ndzhawu, van’wana ava fambisa rito ra Xikwembu, van’wana akuri vahloti lava ava tilavela nyama ya swiharhi. Eku sunguleni, vanhu lava vohlamarisa vobasuluka ava kondzeleriwa hi tinxaka tin’wana, lava vanga xaviselana navona kufikela vafamba swin’we eku hloteni enhoveni.

Hi 1834, hambiswiritano, kusungule the Great Trek kutani leswi swiendle leswaku kuva na valungu votala lava fikaka eka ndzhawu leyi. The trek ayita hikokwalaho ka ku pfumala ntsako ka mabunu lava avanga twanani na mafumelo ya va British (xikan’we naku herisiwa ka vuhlonga) e Cape, naswona van’wamapurasi va mabunu vatekile xiboho xakusuka vaya tisungulela tiko ra vona laha vangata tifuma. Kuvile na mintlawa yotala swinene ya Trekkers leyinga hangalaka na nhova kuya lava ntanga wa Eden ya vona.

Yin’wana ya mintlawa leyi, e hansi ka vurhangeri bya Andries Hendrik Potgieter va fikile endzhawini ya Vredefort hi 1836 kutani vasungula mapurasi lawakulu, leswi aswi nyangatsa vatshami vandzhawu liya. Laha hi laha kunga sungula kona nyimpi, kambe, hikuva swibamu swa mabunu hiswona leswi aswi hlula Matabele. Swahatetano, xiyimo axinga tsakisi hikuva akuri na ntlimbo.

Nhlaselo

Xiyimo xivuye xi biha swinene loko mindyangu ya mabunu yitava yi hlaseriwile yi dlawa hi Matabele, laha kunga tlhakisiwa vana vanharhu. Nhlaselo lowu wuve kona en’walungwini wa ribuwa ra Vaal River, kusuhi swinene na laha sweswi kunga doroba ra Parys.

Andries Hendrik Potgieter a kwatile swinene kutani a rhumela masocha yakwe kuya tlherisela eka Matabele eka nyimpi leyi vayi vangeke. Minhlaselo leyi na yin’wana yivange leswaku, Mzilikazi a hetelela a tsutsuma laha anga fika a tshama en’walungwini wa Limpopo kusungula ntsindza wuntshwa kusuhi na Bulawayo.

I Potch!

Hi 1837, loko a vuya eka nyimpi leyi anga yi hlula loko alwa na Matabele, Potgieter usungule kuvona ku nona ka tibuwa ta nambu wa Mooi (Pretty) kutani a teka xiboho xa leswaku kutava ndzhawu ya kahle ya doroba. Hi 1838, kusunguriwe switarata xikan’we naku aka tiyindlu. Xobiha xakona, timpfula ta 1840 ti kombetile leswaku vutshamo lebyi byi endliwile eka misava yoka yingari kahle kutani doroba rintshwa risunguriwa eka misava yo antswa kwalomu ka 11km kusuka eka doroba ra khale Oudedorp. Endzhaku ko languta mavito yotala, ndzhawu leyi yivuye yi thyiwa vito ra Potchefstroom (ku hleketiwa leswaku ku hlanganisiwe swinambyani swa Chief Potgieter’).

Potch (kuya hileswi yitivekisaka xiswona) kuve masipala wosungula wa mabunu e nwalungwini wa nambu wa Vaal. Endzhaku ka ku sayiniwa ka Sand River Convention hi 1852, ndzhawu leyi yive ntsindza wosungulla wa Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek (Republic ya Afrika Dzonga kumbe khale ka Transvaal). Swaha tetano, akuri ndzhawu ya nkoka. Murhangeri wosungula wa ZAR u hlambanyiwile kuva a nghena e hofisini e Potch. Vumbiwa ra ZAR rivuye ri tsariwa e Potch. The Vierkleur (mujeko wa ximfumo wa ZAR) wutlakusiwe rosungula e Potch. Phephahungu rosungula ra The Transvaal rikandziyisiwe rosungula e Potch. Naswona mudyondzisi wosungula wale nwalungwini wa Vaal akumeka e Potch. Halala, Potch!

Hungu ro biha, hileswaku ntsindza wa ZAR wu rhurhele e Pretoria hi 1860, laha wunga siya ndzhawu ya Potch yingari na nchumu. Doroba rivuye rikula kuva rifamba emahlweni hi swavurimi, mayini na ndzhawu ya dyondzo.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni