Uphikiswano nge Mvelaphi ye Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Isayensi ese Lula

Ukungaqheleki kwendlela iVredefort Dome eyiyo nemile ngayo, yaqala ukuqatshelwa ngoososayensi kwangeminyaka yoo 1878. Kwakucacile kubo ukuba ikhona into enkulu nenikisa umdla eyenzekayo kule ngingqi, kodwa kwakungekho bani uyaziyo ukuba yintoni kanye kanye. Ngeloxesha, ubungcali ngezemihlaba yayiluhlobo lwe sayensi oluselula kwaye indlela izinto ezisebenza ngayo ngaphandle kwale planethi zazingazingeka qondisiswa.

Ngaphezulu, icrater yokuqala (okanye iastroblome) yayibuku gqumeka ngamatye amatsha kwaye ne dome yayisele ibole kakhulu kwaye ikhukulisekile. Uphikiswano lwaqhubeka ngemvelaphi ye Vredefort dome lwagquba kangange sentyuri yonke ukulandela oko.

Uqikelelo lokuqala nolwamkelwa sisininzi njengenyani, yayikukuba iDome yadalwa lugqabhuko olukhulu olusuka emathunjini omhlaba lwentaba mlilo (volcano). Oku kwakusenza kubelula ukucacisa unobangela wokuba amatye ebehleli emathunjini omhlaba aphethukele ngaphezulu, le ndawo iphakamileyo yenziwe ngelitye lakudala-dala lohlobo lwe granite kwakunye nobukho kwamatye angathi yigilasi anyibilikileyo.

Kodwa uxinzelelo olusuka phantsi komhlaba okanye ukuqhushumba komhlaba kwakungenakho ukutshintsha ukumila komhlaba ngendlela ekwenzeka ngayo edome. Noxa kunjalo imbono yokuba i‘crypto-volcanism’ (intaba-mlilo yohlobo oluthile olungaqhelekanga) ingunobangela w dome, lwathathwa njenge nyani.

Abukho Obunye Ubungqina Obuphathekayo

Ingxaki yayikukuba ngelaxesha babungekho obunye ubungqina obuphathekayo. Isayenzi ye astronomy yayisakhasa, kwaye abantu babengekayi ngaphandle esibhakabhakeni/ kwi space. Ngoko ke imbono yabo yangaphandle kwale planethi yayisaphelele kuqikelelo lwezibalo nesayensi.

Enye into eyayingumceli mngeni yayikukuba iiastroblomes ezindala zazigqumeleleke ngaphantsi komhlaba, zitshintshile ezinye zazimoshwe kukutshintsha-tshintsha kwesimo somhlaba. Konke oku kwenza ukuba kubenzima ukuba zibonakale okanye zifaniswe.

Ngoko ke, iingcali azizange ziyicinge nokuyicinga ukuba kusenokwenzeka ukuba kwabakho untlitheko olusuka ngaphandle kwale planethi yethu. Kwaye kwakukholelowa ukuba uninzi lwe craters ezisabonakalayo eMhlabeni zabangwa ziziganeko ezisuka kwalapha emhlabeni. Nkqu nee craters ezinkulu ezisenyangeni kwakukholeleka ukuba zabangwa luhlobo oluthile lwe ntaba-mlilo (volcano), bukhona ke ubunyani kule indawo. Kwala ngomnyaka ka 1892, igeologist ehloniphekileyo egama lingu Grove Karl Gilbert, yapapasha iphepha elicebisa ukuba icraters ezisenyangeni zabangwa zii asteroid strikes.

Uthotho lwabanye oososayensi lwapapasha olwawo amaphepha ethetha into efanayo. Xa kanye kuzakuphela isentyuri, usomashishini wase Melika wabonakalisa umdla kwi crater encinci neyayisaziwa kakhulu. Le crater yayimi kwintlango yase Arizona.

uDaniel Berringer

Indoda egama lingu Daniel Berringer, yahlola isampuli zamatye asuka kwi crater emgobongqo ukumila, neyayisaziwa nge Coon Butte ngelo xesha. Wafumanisa ukuba lamatye aqulathe intlobo ethile engaqhelekanga ye nickel-iron. Wakholelwa ekubeni le minerali yayiyinxalenye ye minerali esuka kwi meteorite (nebizwa nge Canyon Diablo) eyathi yantlitheka eMhlabeni. Le meteorite yadala icrater eli 1.2km ububanzi yaze yazika emhlabeni.

Lo maqhingashe wakwa Berringer wabanecebo lokomba le crater ze athathe inickel ekuyo. Yayilicebo elilula, kodwa kwafumaniseka ukuba akazange awuchane ncam umhlola.

Lo ka Barringer edibene nabanye abatyali zimali bathenga le crater baze bagalela amawaka-waka edola besenza amalungiselelo we mayini. Ngelishwa akuzange kufunyanwe mlinganiselo we nickel ubambekayo. Kubonakala ukuba iCanyon Diablo meteorite yanyibilikisa kwa minerali ngethuba intlitheka eMhlabeni, kwashiyeka nje amasuntswana we ayoni. Akazange aphele mandla, ngomnyaka ka 1906 uBarringer kunye nogxa wakhe balungisa ingxelo malunga nemvelaphi yale crater baze bayinika negama elitsha, iMeteor Crater. Nangona icebo lomgodi lingazange libeyimbumelelo, usapho lwakwa Barringer lahlala lingabanini bale crater kwaye lendawo ngoku sele iyindawo enomtsalane kubakhenkethi. Maxa wambi ibizwa nge
Barringer Crater njengesikhumbuzo zokuyiququzelela kwakhe.

Ukutsaleleka kwi Ngxoxo Mpikiswano

Amabango ka Barringer’s, malunga nemvelaphi zoluntlitheko, kwatsala umdla wabantu. Oososayensi babangona baphanda inani lwezakhiwo ezinje kwihlabathi jikelele. Kuyo yonke iminyaka yoo 1920 neyo 1930 abaphandi be sayensi (ingulowo wayezisebenzela amaxesha amaninzi) babhala iingxelo namaphepha ngembono yontlitheko olusuka esibhakabhakeni/ ngaphandle kweplaneth uMhlaba.

Kwelinye icala, babesebaninzi nabo bakholelwa kwi cryptovolcanic njengemvelaphi ye Dome, kwaye nabo baqhubeka nokuvelisa iingxelo zophando bexhasa imbono yabo. I-Vredefort Dome yatsaleleka kule ngxoxo mpikiswano.

Kwiminyaka yoo 1940, zabangathi ziyajika izinto. Kwakhutshwa incwadi ezimbini, Izihloko zazo zazisithi ‘Between the Planets’ kunye ne ‘The Face of the Moon’. Zombini ezincwadi zadumisa imbono yokuba ilunar craters zazidalwe luntlitheko lwe meteors. Ngomnyaka ka 1947, kwapapasha uluhlu oluchaza imeteorite crater eziqinisekisiweyo eMhlabeni. Zazilishumi kuphela, kuquka iMeteor Crater, kwaye zonke kwakufanele ziqulathe iingceba ze meteorite ukuze zithathwe nje nge meteorite crater. Oluphando lwalusiya lufumana amandla ngakumbi.