Kunga twisiseki ka masungulo ya Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Sayense Leyintsongo

Swihlawulekisi swoka swinga tolovelekangi swa sayense ya Vredefort Dome switsariwe ehansi hi vativi va sayense kusukela hi malembe yava 1878. Switikomba kahle leswaku swin’wani swikulu aswi humelerile eka ndzhawu liya, kambe akuri hava na munhu na wun’we loyi a pfumela. Hinkarhi walowo, geology akuri sayense yintsongo swinene naswona aswitika swinene ku twisisa ku chayisiwa loku ka misava. Kuya emahlweni, xirhengele xosungula (kumbe astrobleme) axi sirheleriwile nyana laha axiri na mati nyana lawa ayari kona naswona aku khukhuriwe ngopfu misava. Kuringana century leyi landzelaka, kuve na ku kala ntwisiso ehenhla ka ntumbuluko wa Vredefort Dome.

Kutwisisiwa kosungula sungula loku kunga amukeriwa hi hypothesis akuri leswaku Dome ayive kona hikokwalaho ka volcano leyingava kona kusuka ehansi ka misava. Leswi aswitava swi hlamuseriwe ku antswa eka kuhundzuluxiwa ka tileyara ta maribye, kutlakuka ka xiphemu xa maribye ya granite xikan’we na vukona bya ribye ranghilazi ra melt. Kambe ntshikelelo lowunga humelela kusunga endzeni kumbe ku buluka aku hlamuseriwi leswi swohlamarisa leswinga vumbiwa swinwe na leswinga tiviweku swa geology ya dome. Hambiswiritano, leswitiviwaka hi sayense ya ‘crypto-volcanism’ (volcano yo hlamarisa) leswinga tekiwa swiri ntiyiso.

Ku pfumaleka ka Ndlela yin’wana

Xiphiqo hileswaku, hinkarhi walowo, akungari na swin’wana leswitiviwaka e handle ka sweswo. Sayense ya astronomy ayaha kusunguriwa kusuka eka maheveheve, naswona vanhu avanga se famba kuya eka space kuya kuma vuxokoxoko byotala. Aswiri xiphiqo swinene leswaku ti astrobleme totala ta khale se ati celeriwile, ti cinciwile kumbe ti khumbiwile hi maendlelo yanwana ya geology, leswi swiendlak leswaku switika swinene ku tikomba. Ekuheteleleni, vutlhari byofana abyinga swikumbuki leswaku kungava kuve naku tlumbiwa ka misava kunwana naswona swirhengele leswivonakaka emisaveni swingava swiendliwe hiswin’wana kusuka endzeni ka misava. Hambi kuri swirhengele leswi aswivonaka en’wetini aswitekiwa kuva swivangiwe hi mintirho ya volcano (leswi aswiri na ntiyiso nyana).

Ku vile ntsena hi 1892 laha mutivi wa geology wohlonipheka, loyi vange i Grove Karl Gilbert, atava a humesa phepha leri ari vula leswaku swirhengele leswi en’wetini aswi endliwe hiti asteroid strikes. Kasi tin’wana ti scientists tihumese yan’wana maphepha lawa ya fanaka kambe swinga vuli nchumu. Kutani, loko kuya hela century, n’wamabindzu wale Amerika u teke rinoko ra yena ari yisa eka xirhengele xintsongo kambe lexitivekaka lexinga exihlaleni xa Arizona.

Daniel Berringer

Wanuna loyi, vito ra yena i Daniel Berringer, u kamberile swikombiso swa maribye kusuka eka xirhengele xo olova xa xivumbeko xa xinkambani, lexi tivekaka tani hi Coon Butte, naswona u kume leswaku yana swinwani swohlamarisa leswi fambelanaka na nickel-iron. U sungule ku tshemba leswaku ti minerali leti atiri xiphemu xa kutlumbiwa ka misava (lexi vuriwaka ‘Canyon Diablo’), kutani ku huma xirhengele lexi ringanaka 1.2km hiku anama kutani xindlalela laha hansi. Kungu ra Berringer akuri ku cela xirhengele kutani a susa nickel eka xona. Akuri kungu ro olova, kuya hileswi swinga vonakisa xiswona, kambe anga hoxisangi ngopfu.

Barringer xikan’we na vavekisi vaxavile xirhengele lexi kutani vatisa ti dolara totala swinene eka migingiriko ya mayini. Xobiha xa kona, akungari na ntsengo lowunga ringana kuhakeriwa eka nickel leyikumekeke. Switikomba onge kuchayisa loku ka Canyon Diablo aswi endle leswaku kuva na kuhaha nyana ka timinerali, leswinga siya iron yintsongo. Swahatetano, hi 1906, Barringer na mutirhi kulorhi wa yena valulamise xiviko hita laha ku sukelaka ku tlumbiwa loku kutani vanyika vumundzuku vito rintshwa,Meteor Crater. Ehandle ka kuwa ka mintirho ya mayini, ndyangu wa Barringer wuye emahlweni na vun’winyi bya xirhengele naswona sweswi i ndzhawu ya ndhuma ya vupfhumba, leyi nkarhi wunwana yivuriwaka Barringer Crater hiku n’wi xixima tani hi nhenha.

Ku hoxiwa eka Njhekanjhekisano

Leswi aswivuriwa hi Barringer mayelana na ntumbuluko waku tlumbiwa loku swikoke rinoko kuya eka Meteor Crater naswona vativi va sayense vasungule ku endla vulavisisi eka swivumbiwa swohlaya nyana swohambana hambana leswi kumekaka emisaveni hinkwayo. Nkarhi hinkwawo wa malembe yavo 1920s na 30s, valavisisi (lava ava tala ku tirha hiku tiyimela) vahumesile maphepha lawa aya hlamusela leswaku ntumbuluko waku chayisiwa loku ka misava aswi suka eka lunar na xirhengele xa meteor. Hitlhelo lerin’wana, nkamba ya cryptovolcanic aya ha tele swinene naswona ayiya emahlweni yihumesa vulavisis lebyi seketelaka hypothesis ya vona. Vredefort Dome ayi hetelela yinghenisiwa eka njhekanjhekisano lowu.

Kwalomuya kava 1940, swilo swisungule ku cinca. Tibuku timbirhi tihumesiwile, ‘Between the Planets’ naleyi ya ‘The Face of the Moon’, letinga dumisa swinene mhaka yaleswaku swirhengele swa lunar aswi endliwe hiku tlumbiwa loku ka misava. Hi 1946, kuve na nxanxameto lowu awu komba swirhengele leswinga emisaveni leswi aswi humesiwile. Akuri na 10 ntsena, kukatsa na xirhengele xa Meteor, naswona hinkwaswo ka swona swina swihlawulekisi swa meteorite kuva yiringanela. Kambe kufamba kuye emahlweni hi xipidi lexikulu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni