Kungavumelani Ngemvelaphi ye Vredefort Leyiyindingilizi

© David Fleminger

Sihlobo seSayensi Lencane

Tintfo letingakajwayeleki tekufundza ngemhlaba nangematje teVredefort Leyiyindingilizi kubhalwe bososayensi ekucaleni kwemnyaka wa 1878. Intfo lesikhumbuto yenteka kulesigodzi, kepha bekavumela noma yini. Ngaleso sikhatsi, kufundza ngemhlaba nematje kwakuyisayensi lencane futsi futsi letindlela tesisindvo tekuphila endzaweni betiviwa kancane. Kungetalapho, Lesigodzi lesikhulu lekungusonaya savalwa kancane tintfo leticinile letincane letinsha kantsi nalendzawo leyiyindingilizi yatsatseka kalukhuni. Ngesikhatsi lesilandzelako, kungavumelani ngetintfo letingito teVredefort Leyiyindingilizi titophakama.

Kwekucala, nalokwemukelwe, ihypothesis kwakukutsi Lendzawo lesandingilizi yasungulwa kubhedvuka lokukhulu lokwavela ngaphansi kweMhlaba. Loku bekutochaza lokugucuka kwesigaba selitje, lesigaba sekuphakama kwe granite kanye nebukhona belitje legilasi lelincibilikile. Kepha lamandla lentiwa kuphazamiseka ngekhatsi noma kubhoma akuzange kuchaze lokwakheka lokungakajwayeleki kanye nalokungasiko lula kukubonak kwalendzawo lesandingilizi. Nomakunjalo, lendlela lekhulako yekwenta kwe 'crypto-volacanism' (indlela yekubhedvuka kwe simo lesisolisako) satsatfwa njengendlela.

Ayikho Indlela Yekuphocelela

Inkinga kwakungukutsi, ngalesikhatsi, bekute indlela yekuphocelela. Lesayensi ye astronomy beyisolo iphuma ekumbatseni kwayo, futsi bantfu abakaze baye kuspace. Bekuphindze kuyinkinga nekutsi liningi lema astroblemes lamaningi beselingcwatjiwe, teguculwa tindlela tekufundza umhlaba nematje, lefutsi kube yinkinga kukutfola. Njengemphumela, kuhlakanipha lokwatiwako akuzange kucabange tintfo tekuphila endzaweni lenkhulu yesisindvo futsi liningi lemigodzi lebonakalako Emhlabeni beticatjangwa kutsi tentiwe ngemandla angekhatsi. Ngisho netikhala kulemigodzi kulenyanga acatjangwa kutsi entiwe yindlela yekubhedvuka (le incenye yako liciniso).

kwakungumnyaka wa 1892 kuphela lapho khona lohlonishwako lofundza umhlaba nematje, lobitwa nga Grove Kari Gilbert, akhokha liphepha akhetsa kutsi lemigodzi lemikhulu kulenyanga tentiwa kukhatima kwetintfo letincane kunemhlaba. Bososayensi labaningi bakhokha emaphepha ngendlela lefanako. Ngako, ngekugucuka kwemandvulo, Somabhizinisi wase Melika wagucula kunaka kwakhe kulomncane kepha lowatiwako umgodzi lomkhulu losendzaweni lesehlandzeni lase Arizona.

Daniel Berringer

Lena ndvodza, lonelibito la Daniel Berringer, wahlola emasempuli elitje kundishi lelula lemise kwendingilisi lengumgodzi, leyatiwa nge Coon Butte, wawatfola kutsi aphetse indlela letsite yensimbi ye nickel. Kwafika lapho etsemba khona lemineral bekuyincenye ye meteorite (lebitwa nge 'Canyon Diablo') kutsi setishayisile Emhlabeni, kwakha 1.2 welikhilomitha kumgodzi lomkhulu lovulekile uphindze utilalise phansi kwalomgodzi. Licebo lelihlakaniphile bekukugubha lomgodzi lomkhulu bese ukhokha le nickel.Bekulicebo lelilula kepha, njengoba kuphuma, bekakadze acinise ngalokuyihhafu.

Barringer kanye nebantfu bakhe labalanyela imali batsenga lomgodzi lomkhulu bafaka emadola latinkhulungwane kuletintfo temayini. Lokubuhlungu, kute linani lelabhadalwa lwenickel lelatfolwa. Kwavela kutsi le Canyon Diablo meteorite yaba nemoya kulesisindvo, yashiya ngemuva tinkhomba letincane tensimbi. Nomakunjalo, ngemnyaka wa 1906, Barringer kanye nalasebenta naye balungisa umbhalo ngesisindvo lesingiso semgodzi lomkhulu wase uniketa tintfo teligama lelisha, iMeteor Crater. Ngekunganaki kushabalala kwekusebenta kwalemayini, lomndeni waka Barringer wagcina bunikati balomgodzi lomkhulu futsi nyalo yintfo leyatiwako lekhanga tivakashi, ngalesinye sikhatsi ibitwa umgodzi waBarringer kwentela kudvumisa yena ngebuchawe bakhe.

Kufakwa kule Nkulumo Mphikiswano

Kwetsemba kwa Barringer ngesisindvo lesingiso kwadonsa kukhanga ku Meteor Yemgodzi lomkhulu kwatsi bo sosayensi bacala kufungatsa ngetindlela letiningi emmhlabeni wonkhe. Ekuhambeni kwa 1920 kanye na 30, bacwalingi(labavame kutisebentela bodvwa) bakhokha emaphepha bacabanga sisindvo lesingiso se lunar kanye nemgodzi lomkhulu wendzawo. Ngalenye indlela, lekhempu ye cryptovolcanic beyisolo ikhula futsi ichubeka ikhokha lucwalingo ngekusekelwa ngema hypothesis abo. Le Vredefort Yendzawo Leyiyindingilizi yafakwa kule nkhulumo mphikiswano.

Ngemnyaka wa 1940, kunyakata kwacala kugucuka. Tincwadzi letimbili takhicitwa, 'Emkhatsini wemihlaba' kanye 'ne Buso beNyanga', lokwatisa indlela letsi le lunar yemgodzi lomkhulu yentiwa sisindvo semeteor. Ngemnyaka wa 1946, luhla lolwalukhomba emameteorite labekavunyiwe Emhlabeni lwakhokhwa. Bekakadze alishumi kuphela, kufaka Umgodzi Lomkhulu we Meteor, futsi onkhe bekudzinga atfwale imeteor lengiyo kwentela kuchubekela phambili. Kepha lomzabalazo wawutfola liningi lekunyakata.

Translated by Phindile Malotana