Ukuphikisana Kwezingqalasizinda zeVredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Usayensi omusha

Izici ezijwayelekile ezingokwemvelo zeVredefort Dome zaziye zaphawulwa ososayensi ekuqaleni kuka-1878. Kwenzekile ngokucacile esifundeni, kodwa akekho umuntu ongavumelana ngalokho. Ngaleso sikhathi, isayensi yomhlaba namadwala futhi izisusa zomthelela ongaphezu komhlaba zazingaqondwa kahle.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, umgodi ophezu kwentaba mlilo wokuqala (noma i-astrobleme) wawembese izingxenye encane zenzika ezintsha futhi isiqongo esiyindingilizi phezulu besigugekile. Ngekhulu leminyaka elilandelayo, impikiswano mayelana nomsuka weVredefort Dome yayiyofutheka.

Isiqalo sokuqala, futhi esamukelwayo, sasiwukuthi i-Dome yadalwa ngokuqhuma okukhulu kwentaba mlilo kusukela phansi komhlaba. Lokhu bekuyobe kuchaza izingqimba zedwala eziguqulwe, ingxenye ephakanyisiwe yegranayithi yasendulo kanye nokutholakala kwamadwala angcolile okugcoke. Kodwa izingcindezi ezibangelwa ukungena ngaphakathi noma ukuqhuma kwangaphakathi zange zichaze konke ukungaqondakali kanye nokungafihleki kwezinto eziphilayo ze-Dome. Noma kunjalo, inkolelo enkulu yesayensi ye "crypto-volcanism" (umsebenzi wentabamlilo ongaqondakali) ithathwe njengeqiniso.

Ayikho enye indlela ephoqelelayo

Inkinga kwaba, ngaleso sikhathi, kwakungenakho okunye okuphoqelela. Isayensi yezinkanyezi yayisuka ekukhunjweni kwayo, futhi abantu babengakaze bahambe emkhathini ukuze babe nombono wamaplanethi ahlukahlukene. Kwakunzima futhi ukuthi eziningi zezinkanyezi ezindala zasezingcwatshwe manje, zaguqulwa noma zaqedwa yizinqubo zomhlaba, ngakho-ke kunzima ukubona.

Ngenxa yalokho, ukuhlakanipha okuvamile kwakungacabangi ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kunomthelela omkhulu ongaphezulu komhlaba futhi iningi lezinhlaka ezibonakalayo eMhlabeni kwakucatshangwa ukuthi libangelwa amabutho angaphakathi. Ngisho nemigodi enyangeni yecatshangelwa ukuthi ibangelwa umsebenzi wentaba mlilo (okwakungokoqobo okweqiniso).

Kwakungu1892 kuphela ukuthi usosayensi womhlaba ohlonishwa kahle, okuthiwa uGrove Karl Gilbert, wanyathelisa iphephandaba ebonisa ukuthi imigodi esenyangeni yabangelwa yikuhwaphuluza kwehande lamadwala (I-asteroid). Abanye ososayensi abaningi bashicilela amaphepha ngendlela efanayo. Khona-ke, ngasekupheleni kwekhulu leminyaka, umhwebi waseMelika wayebhekelele emgodini phezu kwentabamlilo omncane kodwa owaziwa kakhulu osehlane lase-Arizona.

uDaniel Berringer

Le ndoda, uDaniel Berringer, wayehlolisise amasampula edwaleni kusuka esakhiweni esilula esitsha, esaziwa ngokuthi yiConon Butte, futhi wathola ukuthi sinezinhlobo ezingavamile ze-nikheli. Wakholelwa ukuthi le mineralali yayingxenye yenkanyezi enomsila (ebizwa ngokuthi 'i-Canyon Diablo') eyayiphonseke eMhlabeni, yakha umshini we-1.2 amakhilomitha ububanzi futhi ingenele phansi phansi. Iqhinga lika Berringer lokuqala ikuphanda umgodi ophezu kwentaba mlilo ukuze akhiphe inikheli. Kwakuyindlela elula kodwa, njengoba kuvela, wayeziphosisele kancane.

Abakwa-Barringer nabatshalizimali bakhe bathenga lo mgwaqo futhi bathululela izinkulungwane zamaRandi emisebenzini yezimayini. Ngokudabukisayo, ayikho imali ekhokhwayo ye-nickel eyake yatholakala. Kubonakala sengathi i-Canyon Diablo yayiphumelele kakhulu emthonjeni, ishiya imigomo emincane yensimbi i. Noma kunjalo, ngo-1906, u-Barringer nomunye osebenza naye balungiselela umbiko mayelana nomthelela womthelela womgodi ophezu kwentaba futhi banikeze lesi sici igama elisha- i-Meteor Crater. Naphezu kokuwa komsebenzi wokumbiwa kwezimayini, umndeni wakwaBringer wagcina ubunikazi bomgodla futhi manje uthandwa ngabantu izivakashi, ngezinye izikhathi kuthiwa i-Barringer Crater ngokuhlonipha iqhawe lawo.

Ingene kuNgxabano

Iziphakamiso ze-Barringer mayelana nomthelela wemvelo zenza uMark Crater nososayensi baqala ukuphenya izakhiwo eziningana emhlabeni jikelele. Kuwo wonke ama-1920 no-30s, abacwaningi (bavame ukusebenza ngokuzimela) baveza amaphepha abonisa ukuthi kuvela umthelela womklamo wenyanga nezinyanga zomhlaba. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ikamu le-cryptovolcanic lalilokhu likhulu futhi liqhubeka liveza ucwaningo ekusekeleni umbono wabo. I-Vredefort Dome yayingenwe ngokungazelelwe kule mpikiswano.

Ngawo-1940, umkhumbi waqala ukuphenduka. Kwashicilelwa izincwadi ezimbili, 'Phakathi kwamaPlanethi' no 'The Face of the Moon', okwakushukumisa umqondo wokuthi imigodi yentamabamlilo zasenyangeni zidalwe yimithelela yenkanyezi enomsila.Ngo-1946, uhlu olukhomba ukuqinisekiswa kwe nkanyezi ezinomsila nemigodi yentabamlolo emhlabeni kwashicilelwa. Kwakunabantu abayishu kuphela, kuhlanganise ne-Meteor Crater, futhi bonke bekufanele baqukathe izingcezu zangempela zenkanyezi enomsila ukuze bafaneleke. Kodwa ukunyakaza kwakulokhu kukhula.