Iminyaka Yamajoni eRobben Island

Ukusekwa Kwendawo Yamajoni

©Roger de la Harpe
Ukusuka kwiminyaka ka 1936 ukuya kweka 1960 yayiyeyona yegugu kubomi besi siqithi babusoloko bunamahla ndinyuka. Le yayiyiminyaka yamajoni, ngethuba umkhosi wamajoni kunye namajoni amanzi ayehlala kwesi siqithi ekhusela iKapa kuhlaselo olwalulingelwe kumkhosi wase Jamani. Ngomnyaka ka 1933, uAdolf Hitler waye waphantha eJamani waze shukumisa ihlabathi lonke, isiphelo soku yabakukubhubha kabantu ngokungenalusini, nokwathi kwabizwa nge Mfazwe Yehlabathi II okanye World War II. EMzantsi Afrika ubuhlobo baqhabalaka. Amangesi zange azifihle ukuba angakwicala le Britain kunye namandla ahlobene nayo. Amabhulu, kwelawo icala, ayengqinelana nesenzo se Jamani mambi ayephezu kwecingo ngokuphathelene nengxushungxushu yase Europe.

Oku kwadala iintanda kuhrulumente odibeneyo, phakathi kwe Nationalist Party ka J.B Herzog kunye ne South African Party ka Jan Smuts. Ngeli lixa, Intloko yezokhuselo-Head of Defense yayingu Oswald Pirow iNationalist elingagungqiyo. Wasebenzisa ukungavani okuyondelelanayo kwi Northern Hemisphere njenge sizathu sokuzisa umkhosi wamajoni kumanxweme oMzantsi Afrika. Kunzima ukuchaza ukuba esi sigqibo sasilungiselela uhlaselo lwama Jamani okanye imfazwe yokubukulana kunye namaNgesi. Lo ka Pirow wayibhengeza indawo eme kuyo iRobben Island ekungeneni kwe Robben Island kwakuyenza ukuba ibeyindawo elungileyo ukuba kubelapho umkhosi wamajoni ugoxa khona. Waze wabiza esi siqithi sonke njengomhlaba womkhosi wase Mzantsi Afrika. Igun battery yaze yathathwa eSignal Hill yasiwa eRobben Island, ikakhulu isizathu soku yayikukuba xa kudutyulwa ngalemipu isandi sawo sasisophula iifestile kwimizi ese Green Point. Amahlelo ongezelelwe ongezwa ukuze kuqiniswe ukuxhoba nokhuseleko lwesi siqithi.

Indawo Yomkhosi Ese Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Waqhambuka umlo ngokusesikweni ngomnyaka ka 1939. Iinqanawa zase Japan ziyabula iIndian Ocean kunye nobungozi U-boats zamaJamani ezingabonakaliyo zigquba kwi Atlantic Ocean, zenza ukuba ukhuseleko lwas Kapa luthaathelwe ingqalelo. Eneneni, Isebe Lezemisebenzi Yoluntu (Departmenet of Public works) layalelwa ukuba luqinise esi siqithi. Iitoni ezingama 150 000 zezixhobo zokwakha zahintsizwa ukukhweliswa kwinqanawa zisisiwa kwesi siqithi, kunye namaqela abasebenzi, nabathi bakhawuleza bokha iindlela, amagumbi amajoni, umcu wokwehlela iinqwelo moya, izakhiwo eziphakamileyo zokugada, iindawo zokugoxa, rifle posts, troop compounds kunye nabo bonke obunye ubucigogo obudingekayo emfazweni. Uninzi lwezakhiwo zadilizwa. Irabula yazo yasetyenziswa ukwakha ihabour entsha eMurray’s Bay. Ekugqibeleni, ubuxhakaxhaka bokucoca amanzi anetyiwa bakhiwa ukuze kubekho amanzi, nanjengoko esi siqithi sasinamanzi anqongopheleyo.

Kwakhiwa iigun batteries ezimbini neza zine 6” kunye ne 9.2” ye calibre guns; iCornelia Battery yayijolise kulwandle lwase Blouberg ze yona iDe Waal Battery ikhusele apho kungenwa khona eTable Bay. Ngexesha lemfazwe, ii7” ezine kunye nee 40mm ezimbini zohlobo lwe Bofors Guns nazo zongezwa kwizixhobo. Kwathi kwafakwa ne battery engeyeyokwenyani ukuze isebenze njengesothuso. Kwakunye nee battery e Simonstown kunye nase Llandudno, ngethemba lokuba olukhuseleko lusemanxwemeni luzakugxotha kwantshaba ziza nemfazwe kwaye nee cables zabekwa emazantsi olwandle ukuze zikhangele kwazikhephe zohlobo lwe U-boats zizama ukutyhoboza.

Akuzange kude kubekho hlaselo eKapa, kwaye iimipu ayizange ide isebenze emfazweni. Yaphelela ngokudutyulwa ngethuba ivavanywa, kwisiganeko esinye, zabasa imithi ye gramthiya zadala ombi wona umlilo. Izikhephe zohlobo lwe U-boats zase Jamani zajikeleza kumanzi angaphandle kweKoloni zaze zahlukumeza uniniz lweenqanawa ezihlobene noMzantsi Afrika ngethuba zisingise kumanxweme eWest Coast.

Ikhaya Kumaqela Amaninzi Omkhosi

©David Fleminger
Ngethuba lemfazwe nasemva koko, amawaka omkhosi azenzela ikhaya eRobben Island. Abadubuli, Iinjineli, oogqirha, abefundisi, amajoni kunye nomkhosi wamanzi wamacala omabini wamaNgesi kunye nawo Mzantsi Afrika bonke badlala indima eRobben Island. Bambi babesenkomeni, okanye njengenxalenye yoqeqesho lwabo. Ngaphezu koku amajoni ebala asuka kwi Cape Corps eyenziwe ngokutsha kunye namajoni abhinqileyo eWomen’s Auxiliary Army Service (WAAS), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) kunye ne South African Women’s Auxiliary Naval Service (SWANS) nabo babesetyenziswa ukuqinisa ukhuseleko lwesizwe xa inani lamajoni amhlophe angamadoda linqongophele

Yathi yakuphela imfazwe ngomnyaka ka 1945, uninzi lwemikhosi lwasuswa eRobben Island. Umkhosi wamajoni wahlala kulendawo ibalulekileyo yokugada utshaba de yangumnyaka ka 1960, waze wasebenzisa yonke imitshini kunye nobuxhakaxhaka njenge Coastal Artillery School. Onke amagumbi amajoni, iindawo zokugada zashiyeka zingasenamsebenzi. Iqaqobana labantu ababesele behlala apha basose bazinza kuledolophu indala ibizwa nge ‘Irish Town’ baze benza lelali yayeyabo. Abantu abaninzi emva koku sebebhale ngokukhulela eRobben Island, ikhuselekile kodwa isecaleni, apho into enye eyenzekayo iyintswahla yamajoni kunye nokudubula kwemipu neyayidutyulwa maxa wambi njengengxenye yovavanyo okanye uqeqesho.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana