Iminyaka Yamasosha eRobben Island

Ukusungulwa Kwezombutho Ngasekuqaleni

©Roger de la Harpe
Iminyaka esuka ku 1936 kuya ku 1960 yayingeneqholo ngempilo ende yobunzima bempilo yasesiqhingini. Le, kwabe kuyiminyaka yamasosha, lapho amasosha ezinyawo kunye nawemikhumbi ayehlala esiqhingini ukuze avikele izwe ngaphandle ukuba lingangenelwa ngamaJalimane ngemikhumbi.

Ngo 1933, uAdolf Hitler waba semandleni eJalimane, wawuguqula umhlaba wonke waba semzabalazweni, okwanyukela ekuchithweni kwezimpilo zabantu okwakubizwa ngokuthi Yimpi Yesibili Yomhlaba. Lapha ekhaya Eningizimu Afrika, isizwe sahlukana kabili. AmaNgisi ayehambisana naBrithani. AmaBhunu wona avuna AmaJalimane, kumbe abe phakathi nendawo kwezase Europe.

Lokho okwadala ufa kuhulumeni wobumbano owawuphakathi ku J.B Herzog wamaNational no Jan Smuts we South African Party. Kulesikhathi owayeyiNhloko Yezokuvikela engumNational wokuqina owayaziwa ngokuthi ngu-Oswald Pirow, wasebenzisa unqubuzano olwabe seluyinhlesa eNorthern Hemisphere ukuze azixolele ngalo ukuvusa Umbutho WaseNingizimu Afrika. Noma lesinqumo kwabe kuyitulo lokuhlasela kwamaJalimane kumbe kuwukuqala impi yesizwe ibhekiswe kuMaNgisi akekho owaziyo.

UPirow wamemezela ukuthi iRobben Island iyintuba yokusezela laphaya ekungeneni e Table Bay yenza kwayinkambi efanelekile yamasosha esizwe, wabe esegxiviza ukuba isiqhingi sonke sibe yikhaya lamasosha. Ithala lezibhamu labe selisuswa e Signal Hill layiswa eRobben Island, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yokuthi umsindo owawenziwa yilezinganono ezweni ngaphandle wawuqhekeza amafastela e Green Point. Kwanetshwa amaphuzu ukuqinisa ezokuvikela esiqhingini.

Inkambi Yamasosha eRobben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Impi yaqubuka ngokusemthwethweni ngo 1939. Imikhumbi yamaJaphane yehla yenyuka e-Indian Ocean nezesabiso ezazingabonwa zezikebhe zaMaJalimane zibikwa ukuntanta e Atlantic Ocean, okwaphoqa ukuba ukuphepha kweKapa kube seqhulwini. Nebala, Umnyango WeMisebenzi Yomphakathi wajutshwa ukwenza isiqhingi sibe yinqaba. Kwafika amathani ako 150 000 empahla yokwakha eyalethwa ngemijuluko ngemikhumbi olwandle, masisha kwaqala amaqeqeba ngamaqeqeba akha imigwaqo, imizi yamasosha, indawo yokwehla kwamabhanoyi, imibhoshongo yokusezela, yizintuba, izindawo zombayimbayi, izinkompolo zamabutho nokuningi kwezezempi. Izakhiwo eziningi ezindala zadilizwa, leyomfithimfithi yasetshenziswa ukwakha ichweba elisha eMurray’s Bay. Ekugcineni kwakhiwa isihlanzimanzi ukuze siphehle amanzi kwazise isiqhingi sasishoda ngamanzi ngokwemvelo yaso.

Indawo yezibhamu yayinezinhlolokohlela zezinhlobo zezibhamu, iCornelia Battery yayijonge e Blouberg i De Waal battery yona ivikele isango le Table Bay. Sekuyimpi kwangezwa, ama 3. 7 amane, nama 40mm Bofors ezibhamu zangezwa kulentuba yokudubula, nengxenye eyabe ingunoxhaka. Nezinye ezabe zise Simonstown nase Llandudno, kwakwethenjwa ukubuka lokuvikela ugu kwakuzocoboshisa kwasani enkanisayo futhi kwakufakwe nama khebula phansi olwandle ukuba ezwe uma kunemikhumbi yabahlaseli.

Akuzange-ke kube nokuhlaselwa ngqo edolobheni laseKapa, nezibhamu azizange zidutshulwe empini. Zazidutshulelwa nje uku-drila nokuzihlola ukuthi zisasebenza yini, nokho, kunesigigaba lakhona bashisa imithi yo-bluegum okwadala umlilo wothathe. Nanxa kunjalo, yebo Isikebhe samaJalimane sasijikeleza emanzini ase Kapa sihubha imikhumbi emininganyana nkashana ibalakela e-West Coast.

Ikhaya Kumabutho Amaningi

©David Fleminger
Ngezikhathi sezimpi nasemvakwazo, izinkulungwane zamasosha zenza iRobben Island yayikhaya lazo. Abezibhamu, onjiniyela, abezempilo, ab, namasosha asemanzini ayeqhamuka eBrithani nase Ningizimu Afrika ayekhonza isizwe ese Robben Island, kwakuba ngumsebenzi ngqo kumbe kube yingxenye yoqeqesho lwabo oluphathekayo. Kwangezwa namabutho angamakhaladi ayebuya e re-reformed Cape Corps namasosha amantombazane ayeqhamuka kwi Women’s Auxillary Army Service (WAAS), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) nawe South African Women’s Auxiliary Naval Service (SWANS ), wonke asetshenziswa ukuqinisa izwe ukubhekana nempi ngesikhathi sebeyingcosana abamhlophe abebengabuthwa.

Kwathi uma iphela impi ngo 1945, amasosha amaningi axegiswa e Robben Island. Nokho umbutho wawusenesu lokuqaphisisa izintuba kwaze kwaba ngu 1960, nokho basebenzisa izakhiwo ababezakhele ukuba yi Coastal Artillery School. Imizi eminingi yamasosha, yizintuba, yizikhala zokudubula ombayimbayi, nemibhoshongo yokusezela yafadabala, kodwa umphakathi omncane wabantu wababezohlala isikhathi esijanyana azingenela e Irish Town enza lendawo kwayikhaya lawo. Baningi asebabhala ngobuzulane bobungane obachithwa eRobben Island, kwakuphephile khona nokho kucezile, lakhona into owawungayenza kwabe kungudubula isibhamu ukusihlola nje nokudrilla nokuhambahamba njengombutho.

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema