Malembe ya vusocha ya Robben Island

Kusunguriwa kavusocha

©Roger de la Harpe
Malembe yaku suka eka 1936 kuya ka 1960 ayari malembe lawa ya nyanyulaka swinene ya xihlala lexi na vutomi lebyo tika swinene. Lawa akuri malembe ya vusocha, laha vuthu ari tshame exihlaleni rivambe ngoma leswaku rita sirhelela tiko kuva rihlaseriwa hi majarimani.

Hi 1933, Adolf Hitler u teke vulawuri bya tiko ra Germany laha anga nghenisa misava hinkwayo enyimpini, leswi swinga endla leswaku ku lahleka vutomi byotala swinene eka nyimpi ya misava hinkwayo ya World War II. Laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga, akuri na ku avana lokukulu. Manghezi avari eka tlhelo ra Britain xikanwe nalava vangana matimba. Kasi ma Afrikaners, eka ra vona tlhelo ava tsakela Germany, kumbe ku ka vanga teki tlhelo eka ntlimbo wa Europe.

Leswi switise ku avana eka mfumo wa nhlengelo exikarhi ka J.B. Herzog wa Nationalist Party na Jan Smuts wa South African Party. Hinkarhi lowu, Murhangeri wa masocha ari ri Nationalist loyi ativeka hi Oswald Pirow, naswona utirhise nkwetlembetano lowu awuri kona Northern Hemisphere tani hindlela yakuya veka masocha ya tiko e xihlaleni. Hambi xiboho lexi axi endleriwa kulangutela ku fika ka nhlaselo wa German kumbe akuri kululamisela nyimpi yaka xinwana eka manghezi aswi olovi kuswitiva.

Pirow uvike leswaku Robben Island i ndzhawu ya kahle tani hi nyangwa wa Table Bay swiendle leswaku kuva ndzhawu ya nkoka kuva masocha yatshama kona, leswi swinga endla leswaku xihlala lexi xiva xa masaocha. Ndzhawu yo ringeta matlhari yivuye yi rhurhisiwa kusuka e Signal Hill kuya e Robben Island, xivangelo nkulu akuri leswaku loko ku baleseriwa matlhari lawa swiendla leswaku ku fayeka mafasitere e Green Point. Makungu yanwana ya lulamisiwile kutiyisa vusirheleri exihlaleni.

Ndzhawu ya masocha e Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Nyimpi yisungule hi lembe ra 1939. Laha swikepe swa Japan swinga nghena e lwandle ra Indian Ocean laha nxungeto wo ka wunga vonaki wa German U-boats wuta hile Atlantic, leswi swi endle leswaku swiva na nkoka kuva vuhlayiseki bya Cape Town byi tekeriwa enhlokweni. Kasi ndzawulo ya mintirho ya vaaki yi lerisiwe kutiyisa xihlala lexi. 150 000 tons ya swo aka swiyisiwile exihlaleni lexiya, ntlawa wa vatirhi wusungule ku aka mapatu, tiyindlu to tshama masocha, rivala ra xihahampfhuka phatsa, tower leyi vangata yima kona ku languta e kule, ko veka matlhari na laha kungata tshamiwa kona hambi kulwela kona nyimpi. Miako yotala yakhaleyi mbindzimuxiwile laha masalela yanga tirhisiwa ku endla harbour yintshwa e Murray’s Bay. Eku heteleleni, ku endliwa ndzhawu yo basisa mati kuva yata phakeriwa exihlaleni.

Vuhlayiselo bya swibalesa byi mbirhi byivuye byi endliwa laha aku vekiwa tinxaka ta 6” na 9.2” ta swibalesa; Cornelia Battery ayi langute e Blouberg channel kasi De Waal Battery aayi sirhelela nyangwa wa Table Bay. Hinkarhi wa nyimpi, mune wa 3.7” nati 40mm timbirhi ta swibalesa swa Bofors swiengeteleriwile xikanwe na xiphaza xa battery lexi axi endleriwe ku bayizisa vanhu. Hile tlhelo ka ti batteries e Simonstown nale Llandudno, aku tshembiwa leswaku laha hikona kungata siveriwa lava nghenaka hikona laha kunga hoxiwa tintambu e hansi ka mati leti ati vika loko ku hundza xikepe xati U-boats.

Aku zangi kunga hlaseriwa ndzhawu ya Cape Town naswona swibamu aswi baleseriwanga na kanwe. Aswi baleseriwa ntsena loko swiringetiwa naloko masocha ya drill, hambi leswi kanwe kunga hisiwa misinya ya mibiligomu leyi ayiri kona ekusuhi leswinga vanga ritshwa rikulu. Swikepe swa U-boats swa Germanaswi nghenanga e matini kuya e Cape naswona swihatlisise swikepe swotala leswi aswikongoma e West Coast.

Kaya ra mavuthu

©David Fleminger
Hi malembe lawa ya nyimpi naku hundza kona, madzana dzana ya masocha va endle ndzhawu leyi kaya ra vona e Robben Island. Gunners, engineers, medics, chaplains, infantry nati naval troops kusuka e British na masocha ya Afrika Dzonga hinkwavo vatirhile e Robben Island, kungava kuri hintirho wa vona kumbe loko vakuma vuleteri. Ku engetela kwalano, masocha ya ma-coloured kuhuma eka Cape Corps leyi hundzukeke na masocha ya xisati kusuka eka Women’s Auxiliary Army Service (WAAS), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) nava South African Women’s Auxiliary Naval Service (SWANS) navona va tirhisiwile kululamisela nyimpi loko vavanuna vavalungu vasungule kukala.

Loko nyimpi yitava yi herile hi lembe ra 1945, magovela yotala ya susiwile kusuka e Robben Island. Masocha ayaha endla mintirho yawona yankoka eka ndzhawu liya kuya fikela hi lembe ra 1960, naswona ava tirhisa switirhisiwa leswinga akiwa tani hi Coastal Artillery School. Byetlelo bya masocha, outlooks, rifle posts nati observation towers swifike laha swingaha tirhisiweku, kambe kuve na vaaki vantsongo lava ava tshama kona lava vanga teka ndzhawu ya ‘Irish Town’ va endla ndzhawu liya ya vona. Vanhu votala vahetelele varivala hi kukula ka vona e Robben Island, loku aku hlayisekile kambe kuri kule na swilo, laha leswi aswi endliwa akuri mintirho ya xisocha xikanwe na ku bulusiwa ka swibalesa leswi aswi endleriwa drill.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni