Minwaha ya Tshisole Robben Island

Minwaha ya u Thoma ya Tshisole

©Roger de la Harpe
Minwaha ya ubva kha 1936 uya kha 1960 ndi yone minwaha ine tshiṱangadzime tsha ṱangana na zwithu zwilapfu zwo no konḓa. Ho vha hu minwaha ya vhusole, musi tshisole na masole maṱuku vha tshi dzula tshiṱangadzimeni vha tsireledza nnḓa shangoni ubva kha vhathu vhane vha vha vha songo lavhelewa vha Germans.

Nga 1933, Adolf Hitler o mbo ḓi vha na maanḓa kha ḽa Germany ha vha na thambulo ya shango ḽoṱhe, vha swika hune vha wana thandululo nga nḓila ya matshilo a vhathu zwine zwa vhidzwa upfi nndwa ya ḽifhasi ya II. Murahu kha ḽa Afrika Tshipembe, vhuḓi ṋekedzeli ha vha ho fhambana. Vhaisimane vho vha vhe kha sia ḽa Britain na manwe mavhanga. Vhatshena, nga u shela mulenzhe havho, vho takalela madzheremani, na u ḓisa vhudziki kha ḽa Europa.

Hezwi zwo ḓisa ndaḓo kha ṱhanganelano vhukati ha J.B. Hertzog’s Nationalist Party na Jan Smuts’ South African Party. Misini yeneyo, ṱhoho ya mmbi ya vhupileli wa staunch Nationalist a no pfi Oswald Pirow, a ḓa a shumisa khuḓano ye ya vha i kati ya Northern Hemisphere sa nḓila ya mmbi ya ḽa Afrika Tshipembe. Naho tsheo ye ya vhewa ho vha u sa kondelelana na zwa German hu tshi khou lugiselwa pfudzungule dza u lwa na English zwi a konḓa u zwi amba.

Pirow a mbo ḓi amba uri Robben Island nga khole i fanela u dzula mathomoni a Table Bay uri huvhe hone fhethu ha u dzula masole, ha kona upfi tshiṱangadzime tshothe hu ḓo vha fhethu ha masole. Betiri ya tshigidi ya bviswa i tshi khou bva Signal Hill uya Robben Island, nga maanḓa ngauri khakhathi dzo thoma nga u thutshwa ha dzi gulu shangoni hu tshi khou itelwa u valiwa ha mafasitere kha ḽa Green Point. Dzinwe ndugiselo dzo vha hone dzi tshi khou itelwa uri hu vhe na vhathu vhane vha kona ulwa vhukuma tshiṱangadzimeni.

Masoleni Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Lwa mulayo ro thoma ubva nga tshikepe tsha Japan tshi tshi khou ya lwanzheni lwa Indian Ocean na u tshuwiswa hu saathu vhoniwa ha ma German tshikepe tsha U-boats tshi tshi ya Atlantic, zwa ita uri hu vhe na tsireledzo Cape Town. Nga nḓila yone, vha muvhuso vha u shumela vhapo vha vhudzwa uri vha kulumage tshiṱangadzime. 150 000 zwa zwishumiswa zwa u fhaṱa zwa ḓiswa zwa fhira lwanzhe, lugwada lwa vhashumi vha isa na vhone tshiṱangadzimeni vha u ita, dzi ndila, barracks, na u a dza ha shango, vha u lavhelesa dzi thawara, rifle posts, troop, miḓi na vhanwe vha u shuma henefho. Vhunzhi ha zwifhaṱo zwa kale zwo mbo ḓi wiswa, zwa ita uri vha fhaṱe na fhethu huswa ha u ima zwikepe Murray’s Bay. Nangoho, ha ḓiswa na tshimela tshine tsha ḓo thusa ufha tshiṱangadzime maḓi a vhuḓi.

Vhathu vhavhili vha u fara betiri dza zwigidi vhe vha vha vho dzudzanyiwa vha mbo ḓi wana dzi 6” na 9.2” zwigidi zwihulwane; betiri dza Cornelia dza nyadza vha Blouberg channel na vha De Waal Battery vho tsireledzaho ha u dzhena Table Bay. Nga tshifhinga tsha nndwa, nṋa 3.7” na mbili dza 40mm zwigidi zwa Bofors zwa engedzwa kha arsenal, khathihi na dzi dummy battery dze dza vha dzi tshi khou tea unga Decoy. Khathihi na dzi betiri dza Simonstown na Llandudno, ho vha hu tshi khou fulufhelwa uri u tsireledzwa ha zwa maḓini zwi nga imisa u dzhenelwa hu si hoho mulayoni na u vhewa ha dzi thambo fhasi ha lwanzhe u kona u vhona zwikepe zwine zwa khou ḓa zwi khou levha.

Ahu ngo tou vha na u tshoṱelwa ho tou raloho lini Cape Town na zwigidi azwo ngo thuntsha musi hu tshi khou lwiwa. Zwo vha zwi tshi khou tou lingiwa, naho zwo ralo kha inwe nyimelo, vho rea fhethu hune ho tingeledza muri wa Bluegum nga lupenyo zwa vhanga mulilo u tshuwisaho. Naho zwo ralo tshikepe tsha, German tsho isa maḓi ha ṋuvhela zwikepe zwinzhi.

Haya ha Masole Maṱuku

©David Fleminger
Nga tshifhinga tsha dzi nndwa na u fhirisa, zwigidi zwa masole maṱuku vho ita miḓi yavho Robben Island. Vha thuntshi, engineers, medics, chaplains, infantry na masole maṱuku vho no bva British na Afrika Tshipembe vho kombetshedza vhoṱhe vho shumaho Robben Island, kana ndi kha mushumo une wa vhonala kana sa tshipiḓa tsha u pfumbudziwa. U tshi nga engedza masole a macoloured, ubva kha cape corps yo u bva kha shandukiswaho Women’s Auxiliary Army Service (WAAS), Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) na the South African Women’s Auxiliary Naval Service (SWANS) vho vha vho shumiswa u itela uri nndwa ivhe na mushumo musi u fhela ha vhanna vha vha tshena hu tshi vho thoma.

Musi nndwa i tshi fhela nga 1945, vhunzhi ha masole maṱuku, vho mbo ḓi bva Robben Island. Vha masole vho vha vha tshi kha ḓiita zwithu zwa ndeme u swika nga 1960, naho zwo ralo vho shumisa zwishumiswa zwe vha fhaṱa sa tshikolo tsha Coastal Artillery School. Vhunzhi ha vha barracks, outlooks, zwishumiswa zwinzhi zwo swika he zwi si tsha vha na mushumo, fhedzi tshitshavha tsha vhathu vhane vha dzula henefho vha dzhia ḓorobo ya kale ya ‘Irish Town’ vha ita uri vha dzulapo vha kusi vha vhe na zwavho. Vhunzhi ha vhathu vho i bvisa kha mihumbula ya vhuṱukuni he ha fhedzwa Robben Island, hu tshi vha ho tsireledzeaho naho huna uri ndi kule na vhathu, hune zwithu zwine zwa itwa fhedzi ho vha hu tshi vha hu zwa masole vha tshi kha zwithu zwavho na u thuthubiswa dzi bettri dza zwigidi zwine tshinwe tshifhinga zwo vha zwi tshi poswa hu tshipiḓa tsha zwine vha ita.

Translated by Khalirendwe Nekhavhambe