Iinyosi kunye neeMfuneko zePollination kwiZityalo

©Luc Viatour
Ngaphandle kokubhalisa amatsili abo, kukho iimfuneko ezithile ekufuneka abagcini-nyosi bahambisane nazo ukuze bakwazi ukunikeza ngeenkonzo ze pollination kwizityalo zokutya. Umphandi we Agricultural Research Council (ARC) uMike Allsopp ucebisa oku kulandelayo njengo mkhomba ndlela wabagcini-nyosi abafuna ukunikezela ngezi nkonzo:

Iikoloni/iinyosi ezisetyenziselwa ipollination kufuneka zibene kumkanikazi (ibekhona phakathi kwitsili).

Amatsili kufuneka abenobuncinane bee frame zamantshontsho ezi 8 ezineenyosi kunye nee frame zamantshontsho ezi zibenamantshontsho akwizigaba ezahlukeneyo. Iinyosi kufuneka zibekwe ngokwamaqela, zingabekwa zenze isekile ukuze zingalahleki. Iziza kufuneka zingaqelelani umgama ngaphezu kwama 400m. Ukuba oku akukwazeki, kufuneka zibekwe emacaleni kwentsimi. Xa iikoloni zifbekwe ngomgca, kungcono zisondelelaniswe kangangoko. Kwaye ujike ngama 180° kwi heke nganye elandelayo.

Amatsili kufuneka abekwe kwindawo ezibukuphakama ezifana nezitena, ukuze zingahlali ebumanzini bomhlaba. Kwiingingqi ezinezilwanyana ezitya ubusi, waxhome kangange 1m ubuncinane. Iikoloni kufuneka zikhuseleke nakwiimbovane.

Ukuba kukho iinyosi zezityalo ezisentsimini okanye ezikufutshane (eucalyptus, citrus, lucerne, acacias njalo njalo) yandisa inani leekoloni/nyosi-zobusi ozibekayo.

Qinisekisa ukuba kukho amanzi acocekileyo akufutshane unyaka wonke. Abalulekile ukugcina amaqondo obushushu alungele ukukhulisa amantshontsho. Kwizityalo ezininzi, iikoloni zingafakwa entsimini xa i10% yazo zonke iintyatyambo sele zidubule.

Ushishino lwe pollination lungathanda ukuba nzima kwaye ludinga uphando kunye namava. Imibutho yokuhlala yamafama eenyosi isenokunceda xa kubhekiselele kwiingcebiso noncedo.

Pollination Yezityalo Zokutya

©Kathy Keatley Garvey
eMzantsi Afrika, uphando lwe pollen lwenziwa yi ARC, nenikezele ngezingcebiso zilandelayo mayelana ne pollination yezityalo zokutya:

Almonds
Zityalwa kakhulu eNtshona Koloni, lomthi wamandongomane udubula iintyatyambo kangange ntsuku ezingama 21. Beka amatsili ama 5 - 8 hives/ha xa imithi eneentyatyambo ingama 50%. Iintyatyambo ze Almond zivuleka kakuhle kusuku lwesibini.

Ama apile
Atyalwa kakhulu eNtshona Koloni, imithi yama apile ibaneentyatyabo iintsuku ezifikelela kwi 10 ukuya kuma 25. Ukuze kwenzeke ipollination ngendlela eyiyo kucetyiswa ukuba kubekwe amatsili ama2 - 5 /ha. Iinyosi ezi 3 nangaphezulu ziyanela kumthi ngamnye.

Ii-Avocado
Ii-avocados azibi pollinated ngumoya, ngoko ke zidinga ukuthuthelwa ipollen zizinambuzane. Ukuza kuthi gaa ngoku iinyosi zezona zenza umsebenzi oncomekayo koku. Kwafunyaniswa ukuba iinyosi zingagxothwa ziinyosi zeentyatyambo ezikhuphisana nazo ezifana ne black jacks, umthi we saligna gums odubula kade iintyatyambo (noyintlobo ethile yomthi we eucalyptus) kunye nemithi yee citrus ekhawulezayo ukudubula iintyatyambo. Ipollination elungileyo idinga amatsili ama 2 - 4 /ha kunye nenyosi ezimalunga ne 5 (ezibalwe phakathi kwentsimbi ye10:00 neye16:00) kwi 1 m² ngamnye yomthi oneentyatyambo.

Blueberries
Ukutyalwa kwe blueberry eMazantsi Afrika kulindelelke ukuba kwande ngeyona ndlela ingakumbi ukusukela kwiminyaka ka 2018 ukuya kweka 2023. Iinkonzo ze pollination ye bluberry nazo zizakudingeka ngakumbi. Kuqikelelwa ukuba izityalo ezilinywayo ezingama 1 500 ha ziye kuma 6 000 ha. Iintyatyambo ze blueberry ziqhakaza ixesha elide, ngoko ke kungumbono omhle ukuzisa iinyosi ezintsha rhoqo emva kweeveki ezi flower for a long time so 2 - 3. Beka iikoloni ezili 10-14.

iCanola
iCanola ubukhulu becala ityalelwa ukwenza amafutha (Mzantsi-Ntshona Koloni) ize intwana yayo ityalelwe ukuvelisa imbewu (eFree State kunye nase Mntla Koloni). Umgangatho nesibalo sembewu sinyuswa kakhulu yi pollination yeenyosi zobusi. Iintyatyambo ze canola ziqhakaza isithuba seevekis ezi 5-7. Amatsili amabini ayakhuthazwa. Ubusi kufuneka buphakulwe kwamsinya ngoba ubusi be canola buyakhawuleza ukuqina emacangceni.

iLitchi
Imithi ye litchi ityalwa kwimimmandla enganqatyelwanga zimvula kwilizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Kwaye iintyatyambo zayo zihlala isithuba seentsuku ezingama 21. Ipollination yeenyosi ibalulekile ekukhuleni kwesiqhamo se litchi. Amatsili amalunge ne 2-4 abekwa ngaphakathi entsimini. Amandla ekoloni ayenyuka ngethuba le pollination kwaye iinyosi zingakhohlakala, ngelinge lokuzikhusela - bekela amatsili kude nabasebenzi bentsimi.

Amandongomane eMacadamia
Iimacadamia yeyona mithi ikhawulezayo ukukhula eMzantsi Afrika. Ezi ke zindaba ezimnandi kubagcini-nyosi base Mzantsi Afrika, ingakumbi kwabo bafuna ukunikezela ngenkonzo ze pollination kubalimi bendongomane ze macadamia. Imithi ye macadamias idubula iintyatyambo ixesha eliide. Ngoko ke kungumbono omhle ukuzisa iqela elitsha leenyosi rhoqo emva kweeveki ezi 2-3. Ungabeka amatsili ama 5 - 8 ha.

Iimango
Isityaloo esibalulekileyo eMzantsi Afrika. Imithi ye mango ibanentyatyambo kangangesithuba seentsuku ezingama 28. Kucetyiswa ukuba kubekwe amatsili ama 3 - 15 /ha. Amandla ekoloni ayehla ngethuba le pollination ye mango, ngoko ke kudingeka ukuba kufakwe ibubu leenyosi ezomeleleyo kwaye ezisempilweni.

Amatswele
Ukuze amatswele avelise imbewu, kudingeka ipollination eyenziwa ziinyosi. Amatsili amahlanu ukuya kwi 12/ha ayakhuthazwa. Ematsweleni, iinyosi zisenokungadibani negrogro efumaneka etweleni (banded bee pirate), nevamise ukufumaneka kwiindawo ezine santi. Okanye kwi potassium efumaneka kwincindi yetswele.

iPlums
Zityalwa eNtshona Koloni, imithi ye plum idubula iintyatyambo isithuba seentsuku eziphakathi kwesi 8 kunye ne 14. Intyatyambo ilungela ipollen kangangosuku olu 1-2. Kucetyiswa ukuba amatsili ama 2 - 6 /ha asetyenziswe kwaye namatsili afuduswe xa izityalo zitshizwe ngezibulali zonakalisi.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana