Izidingo Zezinyosi Nokuvuna iZilimo

©Luc Viatour
Ngaphandle kokubhalisa imihlathi yabo, kunesidingo esithile sabathengi bezinyosi ukuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zokuvundisa izitshalo zokudla. Umcwaningi wezolimo we-Agricultural Research (ARC) uMike Allsopp uncoma lokhu okulandelayo: Imikhombandlela yokulandela impova yabanikazi bezinyosi enikeza ngezinsizakalo zokuvota:

Amakholomu asetshenziselwa ukuvota impova kumele abe yinkosikazi-ilungelo (abe nenkosikazi emhlathini).

Ama-hives kufanele abe nama-8 ama-frod ozimele ezimbozwe izinyosi kanye nama-4 brood ozimele ne-brood ngezigaba ezahlukene.

Amakholomu kufanele afakwe emaqenjini, mhlawumbe enza umbuthano ukuze unciphise ukukhuphuka. Isayithi elilodwa kumele lingabi ngaphezu kwamamitha angu-400 ukusuka olandelayo. Uma lokhu kungenakwenziwa, kufanele kubekwe eceleni komkhawulo wezithelo noma insimu. Lapho amakholoni afakwa emgqeni kungcono ukuzithuthukisa ngangokunokwenzeka bese uvula yonke indawo yesibili ingene 180 °.

Ama-Hives kufanele abekwe ezindaweni eziphansi ezifana nezitini zokugcina umhlabathi umswakama. Ezindaweni ezinezinyosi zezinyosi zibabeka okungenani ama-1 m phezulu, amakholomu kumele avikeleke nakubuthongo.

Uma kunesithombo sezinyosi ezikhuphisanayo noma esiseduze nensimu yezithelo (i-eucalyptus, i-citrus, i-lucerne, i-acacias njll) ukwandisa inani lamakholoni.

Qinisekisa ukuthi amanzi amasha aseduze nonyaka. Kubalulekile ukulondoloza umswakama odingekayo nokushisa emcimbini wokukhulisa izingane.

Kuzo izitshalo eziningi, amakoloni angathunyelwa ensimini noma ensimini ngenkathi i-10% yazo zonke izimbali isivele ivuliwe.

Ukuvota impova kungase kube nzima futhi kudinga ucwaningo nolwazi. Izinhlangano zomlimi wezinyosi zendawo zingase zizuze ngokwezincomo nosizo.

Ukuvotela Kwezilimo Zokudla

©Kathy Keatley Garvey
Honeybee pollinating onion flowers.
ENingizimu Afrika, ucwaningo lwe-pollen luqhutshwa yi-ARC, eye yanikeza izincomo ezilandelayo zokuvundiswa kwezitshalo zokudla:

Ama-alimondi
Etshalwe ikakhulu eNtshonalanga Kapa, ​​lezi zimbali zomuthi womuthi izinsuku ezingu-21. Faka ama-hives 5/8 uma izihlahla zingama-50% embali. Izimbali zama-alimondi zamukeleka kakhulu ngosuku lwesibili oluvulekile.

Ama-apula
Etshalwe ikakhulu eNtshonalanga Kapa, ​​imifino ngayinye yama-apula izinsuku ezinhlanu kuya kwezingu-25. Ukuze uthole impova emihle yezihlahla ze-apula, ama-2 - 5 ama-hive / ha anconywa. Ukutholakala komuthi omuhle ngezinyosi kutholakala uma izinyosi ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ngomuthi nganoma isiphi isikhathi sosuku zibalwa.

Ama-avovocos
Ama-avovoc akusiwo umoya-impova, ngakho-ke kudinga ukudluliswa okusebenzayo kwe-pollen yizinambuzane lapho izinyosi ezihamba phambili zihamba khona. Kutholakale ukuthi izinyosi zingahle zikhishwe yizinyosi ezinokuncintisana ezifana nezitshalo ezimnyama, izimila ze-saligna eziphuzile (uhlobo lomuthi we-eucalyptus) kanye nokuqala kwezimbali ze-citrus.
Ukuvuthwa kwe-avocade okuphumelelayo kudinga imifucu emibili kuya kwezingu-4 / ha kanye nezinyosi ezinhlanu (ezibalwe phakathi kuka-10: 00 no-16: 00) ngehora elilodwa lemitha yesihlahla esivundile.

Ama-blueberries
Njengoba ukukhula okukhulu kwe-blueberry plantings eNingizimu Afrika kulindeleke kusukela ngo-2018 kuya ku-2023, izinsizakalo zokuvotela izinhlanzi ezihlaza okwesibhakabhaka zizoba nesidingo esikhulu. Ukuhlwanyela kuthiwa kukhula kusuka ku-1 500 ha kuya ku-6 000 ha. Ama-blueberries flower isikhathi eside ngakho-ke umqondo omuhle ukuletha izinyosi ezinhle njalo emavikini amabili kuya kwangu-3. Beka amakoloni angu-10 -14.

I-Canola
I-canola isetshenziselwa kakhulu amafutha (eNingizimu-eNtshonalanga Kapa) nangesilinganiso esincane sokukhiqiza imbewu (iFree State neNyakatho Kapa). Ikhwalithi kanye nenani lembewu landa kakhulu nge-honey bee pollination. Izimbali ze-canola amaviki angu-5 kuya kwangu-7.
Kunconywa ama-hives amabili / ama-ha. Uju kufanele lukhishwe ngokushesha ngangokunokwenzeka ngoba uju lwe-canola lukhazimula ngokushesha esikhanini.

Litchis
Izihlahla ze-Litchi zitshalwe ezindaweni ezingaphansi komhlaba zaseNingizimu Afrika nezimbali kuze kube yizinsuku ezingu-21. Ukuvotela ngezinyosi kubalulekile ukuba isithelo se-lichi sibekwe futhi ama-2 - 4 ama-hives asethwe ngaphakathi kwensimu yezithelo. Amandla e-Colony akhula ngenkathi yokuvota impova kanti izibungu zingase zivikeleke kakhulu - indawo yesikhumba esivela kubasebenzi bezithelo zezithelo.

Amantongomane aseMacadamia
Ama-Macadamia yizimboni ezitshala ngokushesha ezitshalweni zomuthi eNingizimu Afrika ngakho-ke izindaba ezinhle kubafuyi bezinyosi abafuna ukuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zokulondoloza impova kumafama ase-macadamia nut. Imbali yama-Macadamias isikhathi eside, ngakho-ke ngokuvamile umqondo omuhle ukuletha amaza amasha wezinyosi, mhlawumbe njalo amasonto amabili. Indawo 5 - 8 isifuba / ha.

Amamese
Isitshalo esibalulekile sama-subtropical eNingizimu Afrika, imithi yemithi yemango izinsuku ezingu-28. Izincomo zokuvuna impova yi-3 - 15 isidleke / ha. Izikhwepha zeColony ziyancipha ngesikhathi sokuvuthwa kwemango, ngakho-ke izibhamu eziqinile neziphilile ziyadingeka.

Anyanisi
Ukuze u-anyanisi ukhiqize imbewu, i-pollination yizinyosi iyadingeka. Kunconywa ama-hives amahlanu kuya ku-12. Nge-anyanisi, izinyosi zingase zizwele kumapirate wezinyosi (ngokuvamile atholakala ezindaweni ezinesihlabathi) nokuqukethwe kwe-potassium ku-anyanisi empe.

I-Plamu
Etshalwe eNtshonalanga Kapa, ​​izihlahla zemifula zihluma phakathi kwezinsuku ezingu-8 kuya kwezingu-14, kodwa imbali yamukela izinsuku ezingu-1 kuya kwezingu-2. Kunconywa ukuthi ama-2 - 6 ama-hives / ha asetshenziswe futhi ama-hives ashukunyiswa uma izitshalo zifakwe nge-pesticides.

Translated by Nsika Khoza