Tinyoxi na Swilaveko swa Pollination eka Swimilani

©Luc Viatour
eHandle ka kutsarisa swisaka/mabaku ya tinyoxi, kuna swilaveko swokarhi leswi vahlayisi vatinyoxi vafaneleke kuswifikelela kunga ku endla vukorhokeri bya pollination eka swimilani swa swakudya. Mulavisisi wava Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Mike Allsopp u hlohletela leswaku swipimelo swa pollination swa vahlayisi va tinyoxi swi endliwa tani hi vukorhokeri:

Mintlawa ya tinyoxi leti tirhisiwaka eka pollination tifanele kuva na nyoxi ya queen eka tona.

Mabaku yafanele kuva na tikamara ta 8 ta brood leti funengetiweke hi tinyoxi xikan’we na 4 wati brood frames letingana tinyoxi taku hundzana hi vukulu.

Mintlawa yifanele ku vekiwa kuya hi mintlawa yayona, ngopfu ngopfu ku endla xirhendzevutani kusivela leswaku tinga hangalaki. Tlhelo rin’we ringevi e henhla ka 400 m kuya eka rin’wana. Loko kuriku leswi swinge endleki, ya fanele kuvekeriwa emakumu ka xirhapa kumbe nsimu. Laha tinyoxi tivekiwaka hi nxanxamelo swikahle kuva ku cinciwa minyangwa yin’wana na yin’wana ya vumbirhi yiva 180°C.

Mabaku lawa ya fanele kuva ya vekiwa eka ti stands letingale hansi kufana na switina leswaku tinga kumi kutsakama. Eka tindzhawu leti kungana tinyenyani tati honey badgers ya veki yava eka kwalomu ka 1 m hiku leha, mintlawa leyi yifanele kuva yi sirheleriwile eka vusokoti.

Loko kuri na swimilani swotala leswi tsakeriwaka hi tinyoxi ekusuhi kufana nati (eucalyptus, citrus, lucerne, acacias etc) engetelela nhlayo ya mintlawa.

Tiyisisa leswaku mati yotenga yakumeka ekusuhi lembe hinkwaro. Swina nkoka leswaku kutiyisisiwa ku tsakama loku lavekaka naswona mahiselo e bakwini yafanele kuva ya lulamerile ku kurisa tinyoxi e bakwini.

Eka swimilani swotala, mintlawa yinga fambisiwa na xirhapa kumbe loko mabilomu yoringana 10% ya pfulekile. Ku endla vukorhokeri bya pollination tani hi bindzu swa tika swinene naswona swilava vulavisisi na ntokoto. Vafuwi va tinyoxi vale kusuhi vangava na nkoka hiku pfuneta na switsundzuxo.

Pollination eka Swimilani swa Swakudya

©Kathy Keatley Garvey
eAfrika Dzonga, vulavisisi bya pollen byi endliwa hiva ARC, lavanga tisa switsundzuxo leswi landzelaka loko pollination yi endliwa eka swimilani swa swakudya:

Almonds
Tibyariwa ngopfu exifundzeni xa Western Cape, mabilomu lawa yavaka yangari na timomgo kuringana 21 wa masiku. Vekela 5 - 8 wa mabaku/ha loko misinya yiri eka 50% waku humesa mabilomu. Mabilomu yati Almond ya amukela ngopfu eka siku ravumbirhi raku pfuleka.

Apples
Ya byariwa ngopfu exifundzeni xa Western Cape, nsinya wun’wana na wun’wana wa mu apula wu biloma kuringana 10 kuya eka 25 wa masiku. Ku endla pollination ya kahle eka nsinya wa mu apula, 2 - 5 wa mabaku/ha ya hlohleteriwa. Ku rhandzeriwa kahle ka nsinya hi tinyoxi swifikeleleka loko kuri na tinyoxi tinharhu kumbe kutlula eka nsinya nkarhi wihi na wihi wa siku.

Avocados
Nsinya wa Avocado awu endliwi pollination hi moya leswivulaka leswaku wulava switsotswana leswinga tlhariha kuva wu endliwa pollination laha tinyoxi kufikela sweswi tifambaka emahlweni. Swikumekile leswaku tinyoxi tinga hlongoriwa hi swimilani leswi tiswitsakelaka ngopfu kufana na blackjacks, ku biloma ka saligna gums (muxaka wa nsinya wa eucalyptus) na lowu hatlaka wu biloma wa citrus. Ku endla pollination yi humelela eka avocado swilava 2 - 4 wa mabaku/ha xikan’we na kwalomu ka 5 wa tinyoxi (leti hlayiwaka exikarhi ka 10:00 na 16:00) hi 1 m² eka nsinya lowungana mabilomu.

Blueberries
Na kukula lokukulu eka swimilani swati blueberry eAfrika Dzonga loku languteriweke kusukela eka 2018 kuya eka 2023, vukorhokeri bya pollination eka ti blueberries byita laveka swinene. Swimilani swilanguteriwa kuva swikula kusukela eka 1 500 ha kuya eka 6 000 ha. Blueberries tiva na mabilomu kuringana nkarhi woleha se swina nkoka kutisa tinyoxi tintswa endzhaku ka 2 - 3 wa mavhiki. Kuvekiwa 10 - 14 wa mintlawa.

Canola
Canola yitala kubyaleriwa mafurha (South-Western Cape) naswona eka nhlayo yale hansi swinene yaku endla mbewu (Free State na Northern Cape). Nhlayo na khwalithi ya mbewu switala kuva ehenhla swinene ngopfu hikokwalaho ka pollination hi tinyoxi. Canola yiva na mabilomu kuringana 5 - 7 wa mavhiki. 2 - 6 wa mabaku/ha ya hlohleteriwa. Vulombe byi fanele ku hakuriwa hiku hatlisa leswaku vulombe bya canola byinga tali ngopfu exihlengeni.

Litchis
Misinya yati Litchi yibyariwa eka tindzhawu ta subtropical ta Afrika Dzonga naswona yiva na mabilomu kuringana 21 wa masiku. Pollination hitinyoxi swina nkoka swinene kuva muhandzu wa lichi wuva kona naswona 2 - 4 wa mabaku ya vekeriwa endzeni ka xirhapa. Ku tiya ka ntlawa swinyika matimba eka nkarhi wa pollination naswona ntlawa wungava na vukarhi byo sirhelela mabaku lawa eka vatirhi vale nghadeni.

Macadamia nuts
Misinya yati Macadamias yikula hi xipidi swinene eka swibyariwa eAfrika Dzonga naswona mahungu lawanene eka mahlayisi vatinyoxi lava lavaka ku nyikela vukorhokeri bya pollination eka varimi va timongo ta macadamia. Mabilomu yati Macadamias ya biloma kuringana nkarhi woleha swinene, se i miehleketo ya kahle kutisa tinyoxi tintshwa, eka nkarhi wa 2-3 wa mavhiki. Veka kwalomu ka 5 - 8 wa mabaku /ha.

Ti Mango
Xibyariwa xa nkoka swinene xale tindzhawini ta subtropical eAfrika Dzonga, misinya ya mango yi biloma kuringana 28 wa masiku. Pollination leyi hlohleteriwka yiva 3 - 15 wa mabaku /ha. Vukarhi bya ntlawa bya hunguteka hinkarhi wa pollination ta ti mango naswona tinyoxi tintshwa ta laveka.

Ti Nyala
Kuva tinyala tihumesa mbewu, pollination ya tinyoxi yalaveka. Ntlhanu kuya eka 12 wa mabaku/ha ya hlohleteriwa. Eka tinyala, tinyoxi tinga nyenya swinene eka switsotswana leswitihluphaka xikan’we naku tala ka potassium eka nectar ya tinyala.

Ti Plums
Tibyariwa ngopfu exifundzeni xa Western Cape, misinya yati plum yi biloma exikarhi ka 8 na 14 wa masiku, kambe bilomu ritala ku amukela kuringana 1 - 2 wa masiku. Swa hlohleteriwa leswaku 2 - 6 wa mabaku/ha tifanele ku tirhisiwa naswona mabaku lawa yanga fambisiwa loko swibyariwa swi fafazeriwa hi mirhi yaku dlaya switsotswana.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni