Iinyosi kanye Nemfuneko Zokupholunethiwa Kwentjalo

©Luc Viatour
Ngaphandle kokutlolisela izindlu zenyosi zakho, kunezinye izinto ekufanele uzenze njengomfuyi weenyosi ukuletha umsebenzi wokupholineyitha eentjalweni. Ihlanganweni ye-Agricultural Research Council (ARC) umrhubhululi u-Mike Allsopp uphakamisa izinto ezilandelako kubafuyi beenyosi ekufanele bazilandele lokha nakupholunethiwa iintjalo.

Imihlambi yeenyosi esetjenziswa lokha nakupholonethiwa iintjalo kufanele ibe nendlovukazi ngendlini zazo. Izindlu zeenyosi kufanele zibenamafreyimi abunane anabentwana beenyosi avalwe ngeenyosi kanye namane anebentwana eengabeni ezahlukeneko.

Imihlambi kufanele ibekwe ngencema, ezibumba indingiliza uphungula ukutjhida. Indawo yinye kufanele ibe nesikhundla esidlula i-400 m ukusuka kwesinye. Lokhu nakungeze kwarhonakala, kufanele zibekwe ekugcineni kwesimu. Lokha imihlambi ibekwa ngelayini uzitherelezise ngendlela ongarhona ngayo begodu ujike boke ubungeno nge-180°.

Izindlu kufanele zibekwe eentendini ezifitjhani ezifana neentina ukuze ukhandele ubuswe. Eendaweni lapha kuneenlwane ezibizwa bona ma-honey bagder ezidla iliju, imihlambi kufanele ivikelwe entjhontjhwaneni.

Nange kunganaatjalo eziphalisana neenyosi lapha nanyana eduze kwalapha kunesimu khona (eucalyptus, citrus, lucerne, acacias nokhunye) ngezelela inani lemihlambi. Eentjalweni ezinengi, imihlambi ingafuduselwa esimini nanyana engadini nanyana lokha i-10% yamathuthumbo sele ivulekile.

Ukupholineyitha ngehloso yokwenza inzuzo kungaba budisi begodu kutlhoga irhubhululo kanye nelwazi. Ihlangano yabafuyi beenyosi benarha le ingaba yigugu ngendlela yokuza nenphakamiso kanye nerhelebho.

Ukupholonethiya isimu Yentjalo

©Kathy Keatley Garvey
ESewula Africa, irhubhululo elenziwe nge-pollen lenziwa yihlangano ye-ARC, sele isabalalise iimphakamiso ezilandelako ekupholenethiyeni isimu yeentjalo:

Ama-Almonds
Atjalwa khulu esifundeni se-Western Cape, umuthi wamantongomani lo uhluma amalanga ayi-21. Beka izindlu eziyi-5 - 8 yezindlu zeenyosi qobe/ha lokha imithi sele ihlume nge-50%. Amathuthumbo westjalo se-almond uba nekareko lokupholinethiwa ngelanga lesibili avulekile.

Ama-Apula
Atjalwa khulu esifundeni sange-Western Cape, imithi yama apula ihluma amalanga ayi-10 ukuya ku-25. Ukuze imithi yama-apula ipholinethiwe kuhle, kutlogeka izindlu zeenyosi ezingaba yi-2-5. Imithi emihle evalwe ziinyosi yenzeka lokha iinyosi eziyi-3 nanyana ezidlula lezo qobe muthi ngeskhathi esinye nesinye selanga ziyabalwa.

Ama-Avocados
Ama-avocado akapholonethiwa mumoya njeke atlhoga ukudluliselwa i-pollen zinunwana begodu iinyosi zinunwanaa ezikhamba phambili ngokwenza umsebenzi lo. Kutholwe bona iinyosi zingaqohothwa zintjalo eziphalisana nazo ezifana nestjalo se-blackjack, i-saligna gum ehluma lada (ekumhlobo womuthi i-eucalyptus tree) kanye nentjalo zamalamula ezithela msinya. Ukupholonethiwa okusebenzako kwama-avocado kutlhoga izindlu zeenyosi ezingaba hlangana kwe-2 - 4 qobe li-hectare nenyosi ezingaba yi-5 (ezibalwa hlangana kwesikhathi (sika-10:00 kanye no-16:00) qobe 1 m² westjalo esithelako.

Ama-Bluberry
Ngebanga lekukhula eentjalweni ze-bluberry eSewula Africa kulindwe bona ukusukela ngonyaka ka-2018 ukuya ku 2023, imisebenzi yokupholineyitha ama-blueberry utlhogeke khulu. Iintjalo kuthi zikhula ukusuka ema-hekutheni ayi-1 500 ukuya ku-6 000. Ama-bluberry ahluma isikhathi eside njeke kumbono omuhle ukuletha iinyosi ezifretjhi qobe ngemva kweemveke eziyi-2 - 3. Beka imihlambi eyi-10 - 14.

I-Canola
I-canola itjalwa khulu ngomncopho wokwenza amafutha (esifundeni se-South-Western Cape) begodu kutjalwe encani ngomcopho wokwenza imbewu (esifundeni sange (Free State kanye ne-Northern Cape). Ikhwalithi kanye nobunengi bembewu kuyangezeleleka lokha iinyosi zeliju zipholineyitha iintjalo zayo. I-canola ithela iimveke ezihlangana kweziyi-5 - 7. Kuphakanyiswa bona kubekwe ezindlu ezisithandathu. Iliju kufanele lithatjhwe msinya ngombana iliju elenziwe nge-canola liqina msinya ekhekhebeni.

Ama-Litchi
Imithi yama-litchi itjalwa eendaweni ezifuthumeleko zeSewula Africa begodu zithela amalangana angaba yi-21. Kuqakathekile bona iinyosi zipholuneyithe imithi yama-litchi beka izindlu zeenyosi ezingaba 2 - 4 esimini yawo. Amandla womhlambi wenyosi ayangezeleleka ngeskhathesi begodu zingaba bukhali khulu - beka izindlu zazo kude nebesebenzini besimi yama-litchi.

Amantongomani we-Macadamia
Amantongomani we-macadamia sitjalo ezimumuthi okhula msinya khulu eSewula Africa okwenza bona kube zindaba ezimnandi ebafuyini beenyosi eSewula Africa bafuna ukunikeza ngomsebenzi wokupholuneyitha ebalimini bamantongomani we-macadamia. Ama-macadamia athela iskhathi eside, njeke kumkhumbulo omuhle ukuletha iinyosi ezifretjhi, mhlamunye qobe ngeemva kweemveke ezimbili ukuya kwezintathu. Beka izindlu zeenyosi eziyi5 - 8 qobe li-hectare.

Umengo
Kuqakathekile bona iintjalo zeSewula, ezinjengomuthi womengo zihluma amalanga ayi-28. Ukupholonethiwa kwazo kuphakanyiswa bona kuthathe 3 - 15 yezindu qobe i-hectare. Amandla womhlambi ayaphunguka lokha umengo nawupholonethiwako, njeke kutlhogeka imihlambi eqinileko begodu enepilo.

Ama-Anyanisi
Ama-anyanisi akhiqiza imbewu, etlhoga ukupholonethiwa zinyosi. Kuphakanyiswa bona kube izindlu ezisihlanu ukuya ku-ezilisumi nambili. Ema-eyini, iinyosi ziyazwela ngombana kunenunwana ebizwa bona yi-banded bee pirate (evamise ukutholwa eendaweni eziyisanda) kanye ne-pottasium ku-nectar ese-anyanisini

AmaPremu
Atjalwa esifundeni se-Western Cape, imithi yamapremu ihluma amalanga ayi-8 ukuya kwayi-14, kodwana iiintjalo zinekarareko lokupholonethiwa amalanga ayi-1 - 2. Kuphakanyiswa bona kube nezindlu zeenyosu eziyi-2 - 6/qobe i-hectare elisetjenziswako, begodu izindlu zazo zingafuduswa lokha iintjalo nazispreyiwa ngembulali zeenunwana.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe