I-UNESCO kunye ne Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Yintoni iVredefort Dome?

Yintoni kanye le Vredefort Dome, khona kutheni ibaluleke kangangokuba ingade ibizwe njenge World Heritage Site? Ihamba kanje lento, malunga neminyaka ezi 2bhiliyoni zeminyaka eyadlulayo (yibhiiyoni ke leyo i1000 million ukutsho) kwabakho isiganeko esikhulu, ngaphandle nje kancinci kwilali yase Vredefort, e Orange Free State. I meteorite enkulu enobukhulu obuyi 10 kunye ne 15 yee khilomitha yankaleka emhlabeni, yadala omkhulu wona umbhodamo nomonakalo.

Lwathi lusakuba lwehlile uthuli, kwashiyeka icrater enomlinganiselo ophakathi kwama 200 kunye nama 300 ekhilomitha ububanzi. Le crater iqala eWelkom emzantsi-ntshoa ukuya ePitoli emntlampuma. Embindini wale crater kwakukho indawo ephakamileyo-Elibufana nelenzeka xa ujwilwa ilitye emanzini. Le ndawo iphakamileyo emeta malunga ne 100km, yi
Vredefort Dome. Namhlanje, ubunintsi bale Dome sele bukhukulisekile okanye igqunywe ngamatye alekeney. Kodwa ke isekhona i‘Dome Mountain Land’ nesabonakalayo ibijele idolophu yase Parys.

Esona Sakhiwo Sikhulu Sontlitheko

I-Vredefort Dome sesona sakhiwo sikhulu sontlitheko sidala kwaye esikhulu ukufunyanwa eMhlabeni ukuzothi gaa ngoku. Ngaphezulu, oluntlitheko lwawuphendulela uMhlaba-lwatshovela ngaphezulu amatye olekeneyo akudala-dala. Lamatye awafumaneki nakweyiphi na indawo kwihlabathi liphela. Akuphelelanga apho, kukholelwa ekubeni oluntlitheko lwagqumelela igolide eyayingaphezu komhlama. Ngalendlela imigodi yegolide eWitwatersrand yatsho yakhuseleka ukuze yombiwe zizizukulwane ezilandelayo.

Nangona ingenakulinganiswa ne Drakensberg okanye ibenembali ephathekayo njenge
Robben Island, lomhlaba oyintaba ojikeleze iParys ubonwa njengeyona ndawo yakheke ngendlela iphucukileyo kwihlabathi liphela. Le Dome ikwabonakalisa nendima ebalulekileyo eyadlalwa zii meteorite impacts, ukudaleni iplanethi yethu, Singazilibelanga iindidi zobomi ezadaleka nezaphuhla phezu komhlaba wayo.

I-Astrobleme

Njongokuba iThe United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) iyibeka: “I-Vredefort Dome, emalunga nee 120km emazantsi eJohannesburg, ingumfanekiso wengxenye enkulu ye meteorite structure okanye iastrobleme. Yabakho kwiminyaka ezii miliyoni ezingama 202,023 eyadlulayo, iyeyona astrobleme indala ukufunyanwa emhlabeni ukuzokuthi gaa ngoku.

Nobubanzi obuli190km. Ikwayeyona inkulu kwaye ebole kakhulu. I- Vredefort Dome ibubungqina besona siganeko sinye sinamandla, nesathi sadala utshintsho kwihlabathi lonke. Abanye oososayensi bakholelwa ekubeni oku kuntlitheka kwenza notshintsho oluninzi kwindlela izinto ezimi ngayo namhlanje. Ibonakalisa ubungqina obubalulekileyo bendlela umhlaba wawumile ngayo kudala-dala. Ngokuye utshintsha umphezulu womhlaba eminyakeni, kubangele ubungqina beziza zoluntlitheko bunyamalale. I-Vredefort ngowona mzekelo ushiyekileyo eMhlabeni, nobonisa ukuba injani iastrobleme ngaphantsi kwe crater.”

“I-Vredefort Dome yeyona indala, inkulu kwakunye neyona meteorite impact structure sibole kakhulu ehlabathini. Iqulathe iziza ezikumgangatho ophezulu nezifikelelekayo. Ezi ziza zinceda abezemo yomhlaba(geologists) ukuba zikwazi ukumeta amandla woluntlitheko, nokwathi kwenzeka ngenxa yazo.

Uchongo lubonwa njenge sampuli emele yonke le meteorite eyakhiwe loluntlitheko (impact structure). Uhlolo oluthelekiswa kunye nezinye iicomplex meteorite impact structures zibonakalise ukuba yiyo yodwa emhlabeni enika ingxelo epheleleyo nge Astrobleme (ukumila kontlitheko) ephantsi kwe crator. Oku kwenza kubelula nokuba kwenziwe uphando lwe astrobleme eyaqaleka nezaphuhla kanye emva koluntlitheko.”

I-World Heritage Site yesi 7 eMzantsi Afrika

Yonke lemimangaliso yokumila komhlaba xa idibene yenze iVredefort Dome yabayi National Heritage Site kunye neWorld Heritage Site yesi 7 eMzantsi Afrika. Eyona ndawo iyi World Heritage zone covers nearly 30 000ha, kunye nezinye isites ezintathi ezibalulekileyo ekhwakhekeni komhlaba, zona ke zingaphandle nje kancinci neyona ndawo ingundoqo. Ezi sites zongezelelekileyo zi: stromatolite/basal fault plane site, ichocolate tablet breccia site kunye ne pseudotachylite (quarry) site. Lendawo ingoyena ndoqo ijikelezwe yinto enga lidonga, kangangama 70 000ha.

Imigaqo ye UNESCO

Okunikwe yi UNESCO, iUNESCO ingaphinde ikuthabathe, kwaye iThe United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) inemigaqo ebalulekileyo ehambisana nayo. Ndicaphule isigqibo sayo ngezantsi, kuba kunikisa ukubona zonke izigaba ze World Heritage.

Ngamafutshane oku kuthetha ukuba onke amalungu anoxanduva lwe Dome, kufuneka kuthi kifika umnyaka ka 2007 kube sele kugqitywe yonke into Ndinesiqiniseko sokuba bazakukwenza oko, kodwa akuzubalula njengokuba ithethwa. Okokuqala iDome core ihamba phakathi kwamaphondo e North West kunye ne Free State. Iphondo ngalinye line bhodi yalo yezokhenketho, uhlelo-mali kunye neepolisi zalo ezahlukeneyo. Kwaye ikwaphantsi komasipala bengingqi abahlanu abohlukeneyo. Ngaphezu koko kukho nabanini mhlaba babucala abangapha kwe 100, kuquka nohrulumente ka zwelonke.

Kukwakho nendawo zolondolozo lwendalo (conservancies) ezimbini ezahlukeneyo eziebenza macala omabini omda we phondo. Iyileyo izama ukuphuhlisa ilondoloze nengingqi yayo.

Ukuphoxakala

Oku kwahlukana kwe Dome kwenza uthethwa-thethwano lubenzima, kwaye yenza nzima nokwenza izigqibo kuba wonke umntu unamacebo wakhe kunye nezinto zakhe afuna ukuzifezekisa. Noxa kunjalo,ubani makathembe ukuba lamalungu ahlukeneyo azakukwazi ukubeka ecaleni iyantlukwano, aze asebenze kunye noluntu lwasekuhlaleni ukuze kusekwe ulawulo lomanyano. Lonto ingaqhubela leprojekthi empumelelweni.

Le komiti ikhankanwe ngentla ye UNESCO, yaphinda yayityelela lendawo ekupheleni kuka Epreli 2008. Kwaye izinto zazingahambi ngendlela ebezihlelwe ngayo. Ikomiti yolawulo yayiqhekekile, amalungu ayexambulisana ngendlela zophuhliso; kwaye nendawo yayingekalungiswa ngokomthetho wezenkcubeko wase Mzantsi Afrika. Yaba kukuphoxakala ke noko oku.

Ukongamela Imiceli Mngeni

Eneneni ,yayimininzi imiceli mngeni eyayifuna ukonganyelwa. Izigqibo zacalanye zazisenziwa ngurhulumente wephondo abe ehlelele qelele, eMafikeng kunye nase Bloemfontein. Kwakukho ukungavisisani malunga nokuba izakubekwaphi isenta yabatyeleli, eVredefort okanye eVenterskroon. Ukungabikho kolawulo olululo lukamasipala kwabangela ukuba imibhobho ethutha ilindle ivuzele kumfula iVaal River. Abanini mhlaba abatsha babengavumelani nomthetho omtsha wenkcubekho yesizwe. Kwaye kwakukho umqobo wokungaboni ngasonye lombono kwanobunkokheli.

Kodwa ungaxhalabi. Nangona ngethuba kubhalwa, ingxelo yekomiti ibingekakhutshwa. Ikhona ingozana yokuba isimo sale Dome singahroxiswa njenge World Heritage. I-UNESCO isenokuchwakwaza izandla ezimbalwa kodwa kukho iingozi ezimbalwa kulendawo, abasemagunyeni bolawulo sele bechongiwe kunye nendlela zokulawula iimpepha sele ziphuculiwe. Ngethemba ke ukuba iVredefort Dome ngoku izakuqhubela phambili ingemi.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana