UNESCO na Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Xana i yini Vredefort Dome?

Se, xana iyini Vredefort Dome naswona yina nkoka wihi kuva yivuriwa World Heritage Site? Nhlamulo hileyi. Kwalomu ka 2 billion wa malembe lawa yanga hundza (billion tani hi 1000 million) kuvile na khombo leri nga onha swinene ehandle ka ndzhawu ya Vredefort, exifundzheni xa Orange Free State. Kutlumbiwa ka misava lowunga pimiwa kwalomu ka 10 na 15 kilometers lokungava kona, ku onha swinene.

Loko ritshuri ritava ri tshamisekile, kusele kuri na xivumbeko xa xirhengele lexinga pimiwa exikarhi ka 200 na 300 kilometers hiku anama xisele xirikona lexi sukaka e Welkom edzongeni vupeladyambu bya Pretoria e n’walungu vuhuma dyambu. Exikarhi ka xirhengele lexi kuna kutlakuka nyana loku fanaka kumbe ku vonakaka. Kutlakuka loku ekusunguleni aku pimiwe kwalomu ka 100km kutsemakanya, hilaha kungana Vredefort Dome. Namuntlha, xivumbeko xikulu xi khukhuriwile hi mati laha kunga khumbarhetiwa ti leyara tintshwa ta maribye, laha kungana masalela ya ‘Dome Mountain Land’ loku kungaha vonakalaka kukondza kuya fika eka doroba leri hiritivaka namutlha e Parys.

Xivumbeko Lexikulu

Vredefort Dome i xivumbeko xa khale no kula swinene lexinga kona emisaveni kufikela sweswi. Kutlhandlekela kwalano, ku tlumbiwa loku ku xandzile misava laha kunga susumeta maribye lawa yanga vonakaliki helo emisaveni. Naswona kuna swotala. Hiku komisa kutlumbiwa loku ku celele swinene nsuku lowu namuntlha wuceriwaka leswinga sirhelela migodi ya nsuku ya Witwatersrand na lava vahataka.

Se, hambi swiritano aswi hlamarisi kufana na Drakensberg kumbe xihlala xa Robben Island, tintshava tale Parys tina nkoka wa xisayense eka misava hinkwayo. Dome yitlhela yikombisa nkoka wa kutlumbiwa loku nga hoxa xandla eka kuvumbeka ka misava na ku antswisiwa ka vutomi na leswikumekaka emisaveni.

An Astrobleme

Tani hileswi va United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) yiswivekisaka xiswona: “Vredefort Dome, leyinga kwalomu ka 120km edzongeni vupela dyambu bya Johannesburg, i xiphemu xa xikombiso xa ku tlumbiwa kumbe ku gandliwa ka misava, kumbe astrobleme. Kusukela kwalomuya kava 2,023 wa mamiliyoni wa malembe, i astrobleme yakhale swinene leyinga kona e misaveni kufikela sweswi. Leyi tekaka kwala ka mpfhuka wa 190km loko yihelerile, yitlhela yiva yona yikulu xikanwe naku khukhuriwa ngopfu emisaveni. Vredefort Dome yina vumbhoni bya kuva yive ya matimba kuva yihumelela hikanwe emisaveni hinkwayo, laha yinga tisa ku cinca emisaveni hinkwayo, kukatsa na kucinca loku aku laveka, kuya hivativi va sayense. Yitlhela yiva vumbhoni bya matimu ya sayense ya misava naswona yina nkoka kuva hitwisisa leswi misava yinga tumbulukisa xiswona. Ehandle ka nkoka wa wa matimu ya misava leyi, mintirho ya xisayense ehenhla ka misava yi endle leswaku kuva na kunyamalala ka vumbhoni endzhaku kaloko kuve naku gandliwa kotani naswona Vredefort i xikombiso xiri xoxe laha misaveni kukombisa mintirho ya sayense eka astrobleme ehansi ka tshaku rakona.”

“Vredefort Dome hiyona yak hale swinene, yitlhela yikula nakuva yi entisiwe hi kukhukhuriwa endzhaku ka kugandliwa laha misaveni. Yina khwalithi yalehenhla leyikumekaka ya sayense leyi kombetaka vumbhoni byohambana hambana bya sayense yaku anama ka ku gandliwa loku. Tindzhawu tale makaya na xivumbeko xa ntumbuluko lexi pfunetaka kukombisa ntikelo wa xivumbeko lexinga xa masalela yaku gandliwa loku. Leswi switekiwa tani hi xikombiso xa kukula ka xivumbeko xaku gandliwa loku. Vulavisisi lebyi katsanisiwaka na mpimanyiso wa xivumbeko lexinga sala endzhaku kaloko kuve naku gandliwa naswona i xikombiso xiri xoxe lexi kombaka leswaku misava yina sayense yokarhi, ehansi ka xirhengele lexi, leswi endlaka leswaku swikoteka ku endla vulavisisi eka masungulo naku antswisiwa ka astrobleme xikan’we kan’we endzhaku kaku gandliwa loku.”

World Heritage Site yavu 7th ya Afrika Dzonga

Swihlamariso hinkwaswo swa sayense ya misava loko swihlanganile swi endla Vredefort Dome tani hi National Heritage Site nakuva yiri 7th World Heritage Site ya Afrika Dzonga. Core ya World Heritage zone yikhumbarheta kwalomu ka 30 000ha, laha kungana matlhelo yanharhu lawantsongo ya nkoka wa sayense ehandle ka core zone. Matlhelo yan’wana lawa yo engetele: stromatolite/basal fault plane site, chocolate tablet breccia site xikan’we na pseudotachylite (quarry) site. Core yakona yi rhandzeriwe hi buffer zone ya 5km, eka ndzhawu leyi ringanaka kwalomu ka 70 000ha.

Xitiviso xa UNESCO

UNESCO ya nyika, UNESCO yinga tlhela yiteka, naswona United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) vativisile hita swipimelo swankoka leswi aswi fambisiwa na swona. Ndzi tshahile xiboho xohetelela laha e hansi, tani hileswi switsakisaka ku languta ntirho wa World Heritage loko wuri eku tirheni.

Leswi swivula leswaku hinkwavo lava vakhumbhekaka eka Dome avari na nkarhi waku fikela eka 2007 kuva va heta ntirho wavona. Ndza tshembha vata swiendla, kambe leswi aswinge olovi. Xosungula, ndzhawu ya Dome yiwela eka xifundzha xa North West naxa Free State, laha ha xin’we xingana board ya swavupfhumba, mpimanyeto wa timali na milawu yakona. Yitlhela yiwela exikarhi ka 5 wati masipala tohambana hambana laha kukatsiwaka na kutlula kwalomu ka 100 wa vinyi va misava lavangariki mfumo, xikan’we na mfumo wale xikarhi. Kutlhela kuva na vahlayisi vambirhi vohambana lava tirhaka etlhelo ka mindzelekano lava varingetaka ku pfhumbisa, ku xavisa na ku hlayisa tindzhawu ta vona.

Ku yisiwa e Hansi

Xiyimo lexi xitshovaka xa dome xiendla leswaku ku burisana switika swinene naswona leswi swiendla leswaku switika swinene ku tekiwa ka swiboho, hikokwalaho ka leswi un’wana na un’wana angina leswi alavaka kukuma swona nakuva a rhangisa leswi a lavaka swona. Hambi swiritano, kuna kutshembha leswaku lava khumbhekaka hinkwavo vata veka etlhelo kupfumala ntwanano ka vona kutani vatirhisana xikan’we na vaaki ku vumba nyandza yin’we ya vulawuri, leswingatava na nhlohletelo waleswaku projeke leyi yifika emakumu.

Komiti leyi vikiweke laha henhla ya UNESCO himpela yivhakerile eka ndzhawu liya eku heleni ka nhweti ya April 2008. Naswona swilo aswinga fambi hindlela leyi aswi kunguhatiwe xiswona. Komiti ya vulawuri nayona se ayi hangalakile; Lava khumbhekaka hinkwavo navona avari karhi ku kolojana hi tindlela letingata tirhisiwaka eka ku hluvukisa ndzhawu leyi; ndzhawu leyi nayona ayinga se tivisiwa kuya hiva milawu ya ndzhaka wa Afrika Dzonga. Leswi aswi yisa ehansi swinene.

Mintlhontlho kuyi Hlula

Swapfumeriwa leswaku, akuri na mintlhontlho yotala leyi ayifanele ku hluriwa. Swiboho aswitekiwa hi vurhangeri bya swifundzha vangari eka ndzhawu yin’we, e Mafikeng nale Bloemfontein. Akungari na kutwanana hileswaku ndzhawu ya vuyeni yifanele kuva yiri kwihi, Vredefort kumbe Venterskroon. Vuhlayisi byale hansi byati masipala swiendle leswaku ti soreji tipfutela e nambyeni wa Vaal. Vinyi vamisava vantshwa vakanetanile na milawu ya national heritage. Naswona aku pfumaleka xivono xofana na vurhangeri lebyi tirhaka.

Handle ka ku chava. Hambi leswi hinkarhi waku tsala, xiviko xa komiti axinga se humesiwa, kuna khombo rintsongo raku kuyirisiwa kuva ndzhawu leyi ya Dome yiva World Heritage. Va UNESCO vanga panicha mavoko yohlaya nyana kambe akuna swixungeto eka ndzhawu leyi, vurhangeri byintshwa byivekiwile na malawulelo ya antswisiwile. Munhu u tshemba leswaku Vredefort Dome yita tiya naku kuma matimba kuya himinkarhi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni