I-UNESCO ne-Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Iyini i-Vredefort Dome?

Ngakho-ke, iyini i-Vredefort Dome futhi kungani kubalulekile ngokwanele ukuba kushiwo yindawo eliGugu loMhlaba? Awu, nansi isivumelwano. Eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbili ezedlule kwakukhona isenzakalo esibucayi ngaphandle nje komzana wamanje waseVredefort, e-Orange Free State. Inkanyezi enkulu kakhulu ephakathi kwamakhilomitha ayishumi kuya kwayishumi nanhlanu ngaphesheya yawela emhlabathini, kwabangela ukuphazamiseka okungenakucatshangelwa kanye nezixuku.

Lapho lonke uthuli selungisiwe, imbobo enkulu entabeni ephuquka umlilo elinganisa amakhilomitha angamakhulu amabili kuya kwamakhulu amathathu ububanzi yasalela,isuka eWelkom eningizimu-ntshonalanga kuya ePitoli enyakatho-mpumalanga.Phakathi nendawo yembobo enkulu entabeni ephuquka umlilo kwaba nokuphakama okuvelele - okufana nokusaphazeka okubonayo uma uphonsa itshe emanzini.

Lokhu kuphakanyiswa, okunokulinganisa okungaba amakhilomitha ayikhuluku ngaphesheya, yi-Vredefort Dome. Namuhla, okuningi kwalolu dome luye lwasuswa noma lumbozwe izingqimba ezintsha zamadwala, kodwa ukhona osele 'umhlaba wezintaba' ongasabonakala edolobheni lanamuhla leParys.

Isakhiwo esiphezulu kakhulu

Vredefort Dome isimo sokuqala esiphezulu futhi esikhulu kakhulu esitholakala eMhlabeni kuze kube manje. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umthelela oqobo washintsha uMhlaba ngaphakathi futhi waphakamisa izendlalelo zasendulo 'zaphansi' ezingabonakali kwenye indawo emhlabeni. Futhi kukhona okuningi. Kucatshangwa ukuthi umthelela wabukeka wangcwaba idiphozi yegolide eyayikhona emadwaleni angaphakathi, futhi ngaleyo ndlela yavikela amasimu egolide eWitwatersrand ngokusukelwa izizukulwane ezizayo.

Ngakho-ke, nakuba kungeyona into ephawulekayo njengeDrakensberg noma okomlando -njengeRobben Island, umhlaba wezintaba ozungeze iParys unokubaluleka okukhulu kwezwe kulo mhlaba wonke. I-Dome iphinde igcizelele indima ebaluleke kakhulu ngomthelela owenziwe iNkanyezi eyawela phansi ekwakheni umhlaba wethu, kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlobo zokuphila ezikhula kahle.

I-Astrobleme (insali egugekile yomgodi ohezu kwentabamlilo)

Njengoba iqembu lezinhlangano ezihlangene nokusebenzelana nemfundo (UNESCO) ithi: "I-Vredefort Dome, engaba ngamakhilomitha ayikhulu namashumi amabili eningizimu-ntshonalanga yeGoli, ingxenye yenkanyezi eyawela phansi, noma i-astrobleme. Ukudlulela eminyakeni engu-2 233 yezigidi, yilokho okudala kakhulu okutholakala emhlabeni kuze kube manje.
Ngendawo engamakhilomitha ayikhulu namashumi ayisishiyagalolunye, ibuye ibe yiyona enkulu kunazo zonke futhi ehlukumeziwe kakhulu. I-Vredefort Dome ifakaza ngesehlakalo esaziwayo kakhulu sokukhululwa kwesidlakadla emhlabeni,okuyinto eyabangela ushintsho olukhulu emhlabeni ngokusho kwabanye ososayensi, izinguquko ezinkulu zokuguquguquka kwemvelo.

Inikeza ubufakazi obubalulekile bomlando womhlaba futhi kubalulekile ekuqondeni kwethu ukuguquka komhlaba. Naphezu kokubaluleka emlandweni womhlaba, umsebenzi wezinto eziphilayo emhlabeni oye wabangela ukushabalala kobufakazi obuvela ezindaweni eziningi ezinomthelela futhi, iVredefort yilo kuphela isibonelo emhlabeni esinobufakazi ogcwele ngesimo se-astrobleme ngaphansi komhlaba.

Vredefort Dome iyisakhiwo esikhulu kunazo zonke lapho kunomthelela wenkanyezi eyawa emhlabeni jikelele. Iqukethe amasayithi aphezulu futhi namadwala abonisa kabanzi ubufakazi bomthelela lapho inkanyezi yawa khona obuthintekayo. Izindawo zasemaphandleni nezendalo zisiza ukuveza ubukhulu bezakhiwo eziyindili ezabangelwa umthelela. Lokhu yingxenye yenkanyezi eyawa. Ukuqhathanisa phakathi kwezindawo ezifanayo kubonise ukuthi lena yindawo kuphela ene-astrobleme (isakhiwo somthelela) ngezansi kwesiteji esingaphansi komhlaba, ngaleyo ndlela sikwazi ukucwaninga kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwe-astrobleme ngokushesha ngemuva komthelela."

Indawo yesikhombisa yokubaluleka komlando eningizimu Afrika

Zonke izimangaliso zokwenza ngamadwala ziye zenza i-Vredefort Dome indawo ebalulekile emlandweni wezwe (UNESCO) kanye nokuba Indawo yesikhombisa yokubaluleka komlando eningizimu Afrika. I-core Heritage World zone ihlanganisa cishe ama-30 000ha, nezindawo ezintathu ezincane ezengeziwe zokubaluleka kwezamatshe ezingaphandle kwendawo engundoqo. Lezi zingosi ezengeziwe ziyi: isayithi yezindiza ye-stromatolite, isayithi le-breccia le-tablet kanye nesayithi ye-pseudotachylite (quarry). Ingqikithi ibhajwe indawo yamakhilomitha amahlanu evikelwe ngezinhloso zemvelo, yendawo ephelele ye-70 000ha.

Isimemezelo se-UNESCO

I-UNESCO inika, i-UNESCO ingasusa, futhi isimemezelo se-United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sinemibandela ebalulekile ebalulekile. Ngicaphune umbhalo wesinqumo wokugcina ngezansi, ngoba kuyathakazelisa ukubukela inqubo yeGugu Lomhlaba emsebenzini.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi labo abathintekayo ababhekene neDome bame kuze kube ngu-2007 ukuze benze isenzo sabo ndawonye. Ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi bayokwenza, kodwa ngeke kube lula njengoba kuzwakala. Okokuqala, indawo eyinhloko yedome ihlanganisa izifundazwe zaseNorth West naseFree State, ngayinye ibhodi yezokuvakasha, isabelomali kanye nezinqubomgomo. Ibuye iphinde ibanjwe omasipala abayisithupha abahlukene futhi ifake abaphathi bomhlaba abangaphezu kwekhulu, kuhlanganise nohulumeni kazwelonke. Kunezindlela ezimbili ezihlukene zokusebenza ezibhekene nhlangothi zonke zomngcele wesifundazwe ezizama ukukhuthaza nokugcina izindawo zazo.

Ukudumaza

Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kwedome kwenza kube nzima ukukhulumisana futhi kucindezele inqubo yokwenza izinqumo, ngoba wonke umuntu unezinhlelo zakhe kanye nezinto eziza kuqala. Noma kunjalo, kunethemba lokuthi abathintekayo abahlukahlukene bazokwazi ukubeka eceleni noma yikuphi ukubambisana futhi basebenzisane nomphakathi wendawo ukuseka igunya elihlangene nokuphatha, okungenza umsebenzi uphumelele esiphethweni esiyimpumelelo.

Ikomidi le-UNESCO elishiwo ngenhla laphinde lavakashela lesi sayithi ngasekupheleni kuka-Ephreli 2008. Futhi izinto azizange zenze njengoba kuhlelwe. Ikomidi labaphathi liye lahlukana; abathintekayo babephikisana ngamasu okuthuthukisa; lesi sayithi sasingakaze sishicilelwe ngokwemigomo yemagugu eNingizimu Afrika. Kwakuyinto encane yokuhlehlisa.

Izinselelo Zokunqoba

Kuyavunywa, kwakukhona izinselelo eziningi okumelwe zinqobe. Izinqumo ezenziwe ngokungahambisani nezinkampani zenziwa iziphathimandla zesifundazwe ezihlala kude, eMafikeng naseBloemfontein. Kube nokungavumelani mayelana nokuthi isikhungo somvakashi kufanele sitholakale kuphi, e-Vredefort noma e-Venterskroon. Ukunakekelwa komasipala okungalungile kwabangela ukuthuthwa kwamanzi okukhuphuka ukuvuza eMfuleni weVaal. Abanikazi bomhlaba abasha baphikisana nomthetho wefa lomhlaba. Futhi kwakukhona ukuntuleka kokukhubazeka kombono ovamile kanye nobuholi obuphumelelayo.

Kodwa ungesabi. Nakuba ngesikhathi sokubhala, umbiko wekomidi awukakhululwa, kukhona ingozi encane yezinga leDome likaGugu loMhlaba elikhishwa. I-UNESCO ingase ibambe izibhamu ezimbalwa kodwa kunezingqinamba ezingokwenyama esiteshini, igunya elisha lokuphatha lihlelwe futhi izinqubo zokuphatha zithuthukisiwe. Omunye uthemba ukuthi i-Vredfort Dome manje izodlula kusukela emandleni kuze kube namandla.