UNESCO kanye ne Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Yini iVredefort Dome?

Ngako, yini le Vredefort Dome futsi imcoka kangakanani kutsi ichache Indzawo Yemhlaba? Ecinisweni, nayi indzaba. Ngeminyaka yetigidzi tetinkhulungwane letimbili emandvulo (leto tigidzi njenge tigidzitetinkhulungwane) bekukhona umsebenti we catastrophic ngaphandlekwesigodzi selilanga lelikhona lwe Vredefort, eOrange Free State. Imeteorite lekala emkhatsini wemakhilomitha lalishumi nelishumi nesihlanu lelengcela emhlabatsini, lelenta kunganakekeleki lokuphazamisako kanye nenkinga.

Kutsi lonkhe lolutfuli naselwehlile, icrater lekalako emkhatsini wemakhilomitha lamakhulu lamabili kanye nemakhulu lamatsatfu nge diameter yashiyw ngemuva, yaluleka kusuka eWelkom eningizimunshona kuya ePitoli lese ningizimumphuma. Emkhatsini we crater bekukhona lokuphakamisako-kufana nemsindvo-wasemuva lowuwubona nawuwisa litje lelincane emantini. Loku kuphakamisa, kukala lokungaba ngemakhilomitha lalikhulu, ngule Vredefort Dome. Namuhla, liningi lale dome letsatsa itfwale noma ivalwe ngencenye yelitje lelisha, kepha kukhona lokusalako kwe 'Ndzawo yeNtsaba yeDome' lekungabonwa kutigoca phakatsi kwelidolobha lelikhona le Parys.

Sisindvo Sesakhiwo Lesikhulu

Le Vredefort Dome nguyona lesekucaleni futsi lesisindvo lesikhulu letfolwa emhlabeni noma ikhashane. Ngekungeta lapho, lesisindvo sigucula Lomhlaba ubengekhatsi nangaphandle bese siyaphusheka 'sicalo' tincenye tematje langabonakali nomakuphi lamhlabeni. Futsi kuningi. Kucatjangwa kutsi lesisindvo sigcibele legolide lebeyikadze ikhona kumatje langetulu, futsi ivikele emadlelo eligolide eWitwatersrand kwentela likusasa lensha.

Ngakoke, noma kungasiko lokutfusako njenge Drakensberg noma njenge mlandvo we Robben Island, lendzawo yale ntsaba lengase Parys itsatfwa njengentfo yegeology kulomhlaba wonkhe. Le Dome iphindze ivete indzima lecakile kuts sisindvo semeteorite lesiyidlale ekwakheni lomhlaba wetfu, futsi nalokukhulisa kwemphilo kwakha lobuhle kulelingetulu.

An Astrobleme

Njengemfundvo ya Mhlabuhlangene, Litiko leteSayensi neteMasiko lihlanganisile: "Le Vredefort Dome, lengaba ngemakhilomitha lalikhulu nemashumi lamabili eningizimu nshona yase Goli, iyincenye lemile ye Meteorite lenkhulu sisindvo sesakhiwo, noma iastrobleme. Kubuyela emuva eminyakeni letigidzi letinkhulungwane letimbilikanye nemashumi lamabili nakutsatfu, yi astrobleme lendzala letfolwa emhlabeni kwanyalo. Nebudze belilayini lelicondzile lelikhulu nemashumi layimfica emakhilomitha, phindze ngulenkhulu futsi nalekunguyona itsatsa iphindze itfwale. iVredefort Dome ibonisa umhlaba njengentfo lenkhulu leyodvwa lenemandla lekhulula umsebenti, lokwenta lushintjo lolubi mhlabawonkhe, kufaka, ngekusho kwalabanye bososayensi,lushintjo lolukhulu.

Inika lizibithi lolubi lwemlandvo wemhlaba futsi luyincelencele ngekubona kwetfu kwengucuko yemhlaba. Ngaphandle kwebumcoka bemlandvo wemhlaba, sento segeological ngetulu kwemhlaba kutfumele ekunyamalaleni kwelizibithi kusisindvo lesiningi setindzawo futs iVredefort ngusona sibonelo lamhlabeni lesinika igeological ye astrobleme ngaphansi kwe siyilo secrater."

"Le Vredefort nguyona iyindzala, futsi letsatsa itfwale kuhlangahlangana kwesisindvo sesakhiwo semeteorite mhlabawonkhe. Itfwala lizinga leliphakeme kanye negeological letfolakalako (sitjalo esingaphandle) tindzawo letikhomba liningi letimphawu te geological tenhlanganhlangano yesisindvo sesakhiwo se meteorite. Letindzawo letisemakhaya nasekwakhiweni kwetindzawo kusita kugcina linani noma bumcoka besimo seringi lesiphuma esisindvweni.

Lendzaba yekukhetsa inakwa kutsi imele sibonelo sesakhiwo sesisindvo se meteorite. Umbhalo lochazako kanye nalamanye emameteorite lahlangahlangene akhombisa kutsi ngusona sibonelo lamhlabeni lesinika igeological legcwele ye astrobleme (sakhiwo lesinesisindvo) ngaphansi kwesiyilo se crater, ngakoke kufuna lucwalingo ku genesis kanye nekutfutfukisa kwe astrobleme ngekushesha kunika sisindvo."

South Africa's 7th World Heritage Site

Indzawo yeSive YeMhlaba Yesikhombisa yase Ningizimu Afrika Yonkhe lemimangaliso lehlanganisiwe ye geological yente iVredefort Dome Indzawo Yesive kanye ne Ningizimu Afrika ibeYesikhombisa kuteTive Mhlabawonkhe Endzaweni. Lendzawo lekungiyo Yesive Mhlabawonkhe ifaka cishe emahekitha latinkhulungwane letimashumi lamatsatfu, netindzawo letincane letingetiwe te geological bumcoka lobungaphandle kwendzawo lengiyo. Letitindzawo letingetiwe ngunati: istromatolite/indzawo leyonakele ye basal, indzawo yechocolate brecia kanye ne pseudotachylite (indzawo lesuswa ematje emhlabatsini). Lendzawo igegeletwe yindzawo yebuffer lengemakhilomitha lasihlanu, ngendzawo lephelele lengaba ngemahekitha latinkhulungwane letimashumi lasikhombisa.

Kuchaza kwe UNESCO

Kunika kwe UNESCO, UNESCO angatsatsa, bese Mhlabuhlangene Wetemfundvo, Tesayensi kanye neLitiko Letemasiko kuchaza linetintfo letimbalwa letimcoka letihlanganisiwe.Ngivete sincumo sekugcina kulombhalo ngaphansi, njengoba kumcoka kubuka inchubo Yemhlaba Yesive isebenta. Loku kusho kutsi tinhlobonhlobo temalunga labhekene naleDome anelitfuba kuze kube ngu 2007 kutsi ahlanganise tintfo tawo ndzawonye.

Ngiyetsemba kutsi atokwenta, kodvwa angeke kubemalula njengoba kuvakala. Kwekucala, lendzawo lekunguyona ye Dome imphila ndzawotonkhe etigodzini te North West nase Free State, ngayinye inelibhodi layo letekuvakasha, imali lebekiwe kanye nemitsetfo yayo. Iphindze iwele etigodzini letisihlanu tamasipala phindze isebente kubanikati betindzawo labangetulu kwelikhulu, kufaka ekhatsi hulumende wesive. Phindze timbili tindlela letehlukene tekusebenta noma ngukuyiphi indzawo yalesosigodzi kulelilayini kuzama kutfutfukisa nekugcina tindzawo tabo letihloniphekile.

Kwenteleka Phansi

Lena ncenye legamukile ye Dome yenta kuchumana kubelukhuni phindze ihlangahlanganisa incubo yekutsatsa sincumo, njengoba wonkhe muntfu anetintfo takhe nemigomo. Nomakunjalo,munye uyetsemba kutsi tinhlobonhlobo temalunga titokhona kubeka eceleni tinkinga bese asebenta kanyekanye nemphakatsi wasendzaweni kwentela kutfola baphatsi labamunye, lokuchubela lomsebenti kumphumelelo lenhle.

Lekomidi leshitiwo ngetulu nayo yenta kuvakashela lendzawo ekupheleni kwenyanga yaMabasa nga 2008. Futsi tintfo tatingahambi ngendlela lefanele. Lelikomidi lekumenenja beselihliphikile; emalunga bekalwa ngendlela yekutfutfukisa; lendzawo beyingakaze yabekwa ngemhambo wemtsetfo we Ningizimu Afrika. Kwakuyintfo lencane yekwentelana phansi.

Tinkinga Letengciwako

Ngekuvuma, bekukhona tinkinga letiningi lebekumele tengciwe. Tincumo letinkhulu tentiwa baphatsi betigodzi bahleti khashane nalomunye, eMafikenga nase Bloemfontein. Bekunekungavumelani nekutsi kumele ibekuphi indzawo yekuvakashela, eVredefort noma eVenterskroon. Kunganakekelwa kwalapho kungena khona emangcoliso kwenta kutsi kubekhona kuvutela eMfuleni we Vaal. Banikati labasha bendzawo bamisa lomtsetfo lobowubekiwe weSive. Futsi bekukhona nekungaboni ngaliso linye kanye nekuceka kwekuhola.

Kepha ungesabi. Noma njengesikhatsi sekubhala, umbhalo welikomidi bowusengakakhokhwa, kunengoti lencane yeDome Yemhlaba leyakhokhwa. UNESCO bekangashaya timbambo letimbalwa kepha kukhona tintfo letimbalwa letitfusako, baphatsi labasha sebakhetsiwe futs nemalungiselelo sekaceceshiwe. Munye uyetsemba kutsi leVredfort Dome nyalo itohamba kusuka kukunye kuya kulokunye.

Translated by Phindile Malotana