Amadumbe

© Marinda Louw
Amadumbe okanye “amazambane akwi mimandla enobushushu” (Colocasia esculenta) akwaziwa ngokuba yi mufhongwe, madumbis, taro okanye dasheen. Amadumbe akhuliswa eMzantsi-Mpuma we-Asia iminyaka engapha kwama 6 000 kwaye yaziswa kuMazantsi we Afrika ngabathengisi bama phuthukezi (Portuguese) ngeminyaka yo 500 kunye nabasebenzi bama Ndiya ekuhambeni kwexesha.
Ingumthi, ingcambu yesivuno semimandla eshushu ekhuliswa eMzantsi Afrika kwindawo ezinemilambo kwaye yenye yemveliso zemifuno enegcambu ebalulekileyo kwilizwe jikelele. Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) okanye iindlebe zendlovu zezinye iingcambu zesivuno ezibalulekileyo, zikhuliswa kakhulu entshona ye-Afrika kumazwe afana ne Cameroon, Nigeria, nase Ghana.
eMzantsi Afrika, amadumbe ayeveliswa ngamafama alimela ezekhaya Kwazulu Natal, eMpumalanga, kumaphondo ase Ntshona ne Mpuma koloni, kodwa nokwaziswa kwama dumbe kwivenkile ezaziwayo zentengiso kukhulise isidima salomfuno wamandulo ukukutya.

Ungawakhulisa njani Amadumbe

Amadumbe yingcambu emile ngqukuva okanye ukhozo lombona, ikwabizwa ngokuba yi ‘mammy’. Inesikhumba esirhabaxa esimdaka ngombala kwaye ibubunzima obuphakathi ko 500 ukuya ku 900 g, kodwa ingaba nobunzima obungu 3.6 kg inyama, mhlophe okanye pinki.
Amadumbe athanda indawo enomthunzi omnncinci, kodwa ayakhula nakwindawo ezinelanga xa enkcenkceshelwa. Adinga isimo sezulu esishushu kwaye awamelani nendawo ezinomkhenkce. Amadumbe akhula kwindawo ezine asidi kancinci, umhlaba ofumileyo onomgquba omninzi. Ungasasazwa kwimibhobho okanye kwintwana ntwana zemibhobho. Tyala ngesandla, icala elisikiweyo lijonge ezantsi libe buku kekela, kubunzulu obungu 15 cm.
Tyala amadumbe ngo 60 cm ukwahlukana kumngama ongu 1 cm phakathi kwemiqolo elona xesha lokutyala yinyanga yoMnga no Tshazimpuzi okanye nanini na xa umhlaba ufumile. Chumisa nge NPK (15:15:1). Oku kubonakalisa umlinganiselo we nitrogen (N:15 units) kwi phosphorus (P:15 units) kwi potassium (K:unit enye). Fafaza isihlanu ukuya kwi kwisithandathu sebhotile ze coke iziciko ezigcwele iNPK kwi sekile ye 10cm engqunge isityalo.
Amadumbe ayathandwa ziinkumi ezifana ne mbovane ezimhlophe (white ants) nee rote kwaye zinga maxhoba we root rot xa zityalwe kumhlaba ome amanzi. Kodwa ke, ayanyamezela kwi mole-rat ekhetha izityalo ezifana namazambane okanye iminqathe. Kungenxa yokuba madumbe ayityhefu xa etyiwe ehlaza, ngenxa yomlinganiselo o[hezulu we calcium oxalate crystals, ezenza ukudumba neentlungu emlonyeni nase mqaleni. Kuvunwa emveni kwenyanga ezisibhozo ukuya kwishumi, xa amagqabi ejika ebathyeli ngombala. Iingcambu zombiwa ngomhlakulo okanye ngetele-tele enenkcekce ekhethekileyo. Iingcambu ziya cocwa, zilungiswe, kwaye zipakishwe.
Uphando olwenziwe ngu Prudence Ntombifikile Tembe olenziwe kwilali zakwa Zulu Natal ngonyaka ka 2008 lubonakalisa okokuba abathengisi bakhetha ukunikezwa okuncinci ukuya kokuphakathi kwamadumbe, acociweyo, omileyo, aziswe ngama kreti. Owona mcela kwaba bavelisi basezilalini kukuhambisa amadumbe kubathengi.

uKutya Amadumbe

Amadumbe anencasa efana neyomhlaba, iphezulu kwi carbohydrates (low GI) kwaye ine protein ne amino acids kuzo zonke izivuno ezivunwa kwingcambu. Anomlinganiseli we 9% we protein xa ithekeleliswa kumazambane wona angu 1.9%, logama ibhatata ingu 1.7%. Ine zinongo eziyi fibre, magnesium, potassium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, no vitamin C.
Amadumbe aphekwa oku kwamazambane okanye ibhatata kwaye ayakwazi ukubiliswa, aqhotswe okanye agrilwe acujwe xa ephakwa, okanye enziwe itshiphusi (chips) iyakwazi nokusetyenziswa kwimbiza zenyama. Amadumbe acujiweyo alungele ngakumbi ukutyiwa ngumntwana xa eqala ukutya okuqinileyo.
Amagqabi, okanye izikhondo zityiwa njenge spinatshi kwaye ahambelana kakuhle nombona okanye aphekwe nge (coconut cream) kunye namadumbe abilisiweyo. Ama-Ndiya akwa Zulu Natal xa epheka amadumbe awabiza I’puri patta’. Amagqabi aqatywa intlama eqholiweyo, agotywe, aphekwe ngamanzi, anqunqwe atyiwe ne (pancakes).
Iintyatyambo zamadumbe (zibizwa ngokuba zi ‘aroids’) ziye zenziwe umgubo wokwenza ukutya ‘ifufu’, ixhaphakile ke ukuphekwa nenyama eNigeria. Ngesintu amadumbe akhuliswa njengokutya, kodwa kwiminyaka edlulileyo, iyasetyenziswa nakwezinye intlobo zokutya. Kuquka amadumbe ne nekhokho le pizza yespinatshi, itshipsi (chips), isidlo ikhari kunye namakhatshu (flakes) amadumbe.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie