Amadumbe

© Marinda Louw
Amadumbe kumbe "potato of the tropics" (Colocasia esculenta) lawa ya tivekaka ku antswa tani hi mufhongwe, madumbis, taro kumbe dasheen.
Amadumbe ya byariwile ngopfu e South-East Asia kuringana kutlula 6 000 wa malembe naswona yatisiwile e Dzongeni wa Afrika hivaxavisi Portuguese hi malembe yava 1500's xikan’we navatirhi vale India endzhaku ka minkarhi.
Ximilani lexi i mitsembyani, matsavu ya timintsu leyi byariwaka e Afrika Dzonga laha kutsakamaka swinene naswona i xin’wana xa nkoka swinene eka matsavu ya timintsu laha misaveni. Tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) kumbe elephant ears i yan’wana matsavu yankoka swinene, lawa ya byariwaka swinene ematikweni ya West Africa naswona yarhandziwa swinene kutlula amadumbe hikokwalaho ka mbuyelo wale henhla. Kuriku, 90% ya vuhumelerisi bya misava hinkwayo bya amadumbe byi suka e matikweni ya West Africa kufana na Cameroon, Nigeria nale Ghana.
E Afrika Dzonga, amadumbe aya byariwa ngopfu hivan’wamapurasi e KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Western nale swifundzheni swa Eastern Cape, kambe endzhaku ka kufikisiwa ka amadumbe hi mavhengele yan’wani ya ndhuma, swinyanyise kutiveka ka matsavu lawa ya ndzhavuko nakuva swakudya swa siku na siku.

Ndlela yo Byala Amadumbes

Amadumbe i rimintsu ra xivumbeko lexinga kukumuka e henhla, leri vuriwaka ‘mammy'. Rina nhlonge leyinga tsindziyela ya buraweni naswona ritika kwalomu ka 500 kuya eka 900 g, kambe ringa kula ritika kwalomu ka 3.6 kg. Swale ndzeni ka rona i swobasa kumbe pink.
Amadumbe yatsakela laha kungana ndzhuti nyana, kambe yanga kula kahle laha kunga na dyambu leri heleleke loko ya cheletiwa. Ya lava maxelo yokufumela naswona aya kondzeleli gwitsi. Amadumbe ya mila kahle eka misava leyingana acid, leyi tsakamaka leyinga tala swakudya kumbe manyoro. Yanga byariwa hiku tirhisa rimintsu hinkwaro kumbe kutsemiwa ka timintsu. Ya byariwa hi voko laha lakunga tsemiwa kufanele ku languta ehansi kutani ya voyamisiwa nyana kuringana 15 cm hiku enta.
Byala amadumbe kwalomu ka 60 cm hiku hambana na xipesi xa 1 m exikarhi ka mintila. Nkarhi wakahle wobyala i nhweti ya December kuya eka April kumbe nkarhi wihi na wihi loko misava yitsakama. Nonisa misava hi NPK (15:15:1). Leswi swikombeta ratio ya nitrogen (N: 15 units) kuya eka phosphorus (P:15 units) kuya eka potassium (K: one unit). Nyunyetela 5 kuya eka 6 wa swipfalo swa bodlhela ra Coke swa NPK eka ndzhawu ya 10 cm ematlhelo ya ximilani.
Amadumbe yani ndhuma leyikulu swinene ya switsotswani swofana na vusokoti byo basa na ti rodents naswona aya hlweli ku bola timintsu loko ya byariwe eka misava leyinga tala mati swinene. Hambi swiritano, ya kondzelela ngopfu makondlo yati mole-rat lawa yatsakelaka ngopfu swibyariwa swofana na mazambala nati carrots. Leswi hikuva amadumbe ya dlaya loko yadyiwa yanga swekiwangi, hikokwalaho yangana nhlayo yotala ya calcium oxalate crystals, leswi vangaka kupfimba enonweni nale nkolweni.
Kutshoveriwa swi endliwa endzhaku ka 8 kuya ka 10 wa tinhweti, loko matluka ya hundzuka xitshopani. Timintsu ta ceriwa hi xipedi kumbe hi teretere leringana xikomu xohlawuleka. Timintsu ta basisiwa, ti hlawuriwa kutani ti pakiwa.
Vulavisisi bya Prudence Ntombifikile Tembe lebyinga endliwa ematiko xikaya yale KwaZulu-Natal hi 2008 byi komba leswaku vaxavisi vatsakela mphakelo wa nkarhi hinkwawo wa sayizi leyintsongo kuya eka yale xikarhi ya amadumbe, lawa ya basisiweke ya tlhela ya omisiwa naswona ya tisiwa hi magasi. Ntlhontlho lowukulu lowu vabyari lava vale makaya va hlanganaka na wona iku fambisa swibyariwa swavona kuya e timakete.

Ku dya Amadumbes

Amadumbe ya fuwile hi nantswo, yale henhla hiti carbohydrates (low GI) naswona yana ti protein nati amino acids kutlula swibyariwa swinwana swa timintsu. Swina 9% wa ti protein loko swipimanyisiwa na mazambala 1.9% na minhlata1.7%. Ya fuwile hi fibre, magnesium, potassium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, xikan’we na vitamin C.
Ya swekiwa kufana na mazambala kumbe minhlata naswona yanga virisiwa, katingiwa kumbe ku oxiwa Kunene kumbe ya phameriwa tani hi mash, chips kumbe na stews. Mashed amadumbe ya kahle swinene kutirhisiwa tani hi swakudya swaku lumula.
Matluka, minkarhi yinwani matshindi yakona, swidyiwa kufana na xipinichi naswona ya phakela nseketelo eka mavele kumbe ya swekiwa na coconut cream kutani yi phameriwa na amadumbe lawa ya swekiweke. Rixaka ra ma Indian e KwaZulu-Natal ringhenise amadumbe eka swakudya swa rona tani hi ‘puri patta'. Matluka ya phameriwa na batter leyingana xipayisisi, ya petsiwa, ya stimiwa kutani ya tsemeleriwa ya phameriwa nati pancakes.
Mabilomu ya amadumbe (lawa ya vuriwaka ‘aroids’) ya endliwa flawuri yaku endla ‘fufu', leyinga na ndhuma e Nigeria. Hi ndzhavuko amadumbe yibyariwa tani hi swakudya swa siku na siku, kambe eka malembe nyana lawa yanga hundza, aya tirhisiwa eka swakudya swin’wana. Leswi swikatsa amadumbe na tshaku ra xipinichi ra pizza, crisps, curry nati amadumbe flakes.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni