ILawulo lokuGandeleleka Emkhumbulweni kweeNyoni

© Chris Daly

Iinkukhu zingabonakala kwanga ziinlwana ezizithabeleko nezinetjhudu, kodwana kunezinto ezinengi ezingazibengela bonyana zigandeleleke emkhumbulweni begodu lokho kungabangela nokobanyana zibanjwe malwelwe lula.

Ukudla Namanzi

Ukudla kungenza bonyana iinkukhu zigandeleleke nemkhumbulweni nangabe akukalingani, akutholakali lula, nofana kunokuphalisana okunengi lokha nazidlako, nangabe ukudla kwazo kuziintokana ezincani nofana kube banzi khulu, nofana lokha kubanezinga eliphezulu letswayi.

Okhunye nokhunye kwalokho kungabanomthelela omumbi ekudleni kweenkukhu, kwenze bonyana iinkukhu zingabi namandla wokujamelana namalwelwe. Ukudla okubolileko nokunobulwembu buphethe itjhefu engenza iinkukhu bona zigule.

Nalokha iinkukhu zingakghoni ukuthola amanzi aneleko, nofana lokha amanzi atjhisa khulu nofana angasi sebujameni obuhle. Ngokuya ngehlangano etjheje iindaba zeenkukhu i-South African Poultry Association, ukoma kwenkukhu angekhe kwabanga ukugandeleleka ngokomkhumbulo kwaphela, kodwana komisa neendlela zokuphefumula zenkukhu, okwenza bonyana kubelula bonyana iinlwanyana ezibanga amalwelwe zingene enkukhwinezi.

Amanzi asilaphazekileko nawo aletha ubungozi, ngombana avame ukumumatha imihlobohlobo yamalwelwe angabanga ukwanda kweenlwanyana ezidlangisa amalwelwe kanye nengogwana engaqeda amandla wamasotja womzimba weemkukhu.

Abonobangela Yebhoduluko

©Chris Daly
Umkhanyo ungenza bonyana iikukhu zigandeleleke emkhumbulweni, lokha zingatholi ithuba lokuba semnyameni ukwenzela bonyana zilale. Ngokuya ngehlangano etjheje zepilo eenkukwini i-World Health Organisation, iinkukhu kufanele zinikelwe isikhathi esaneleko sokujayela ukutjhugulula ubude belanga ngeenkhathi ezizingaba ezihlukahlukaneko zokukhiqiza kanye nalokha kutjhugulula ukusuka ebumnyameni ukuya emkhanyweni kanye nokusuka emkhanyweni ukuya emnyameni.

Umkhanyo kufanele bonyana usatjalaliswe ngokulingana, kungakhanyi bese kuba nalapho kuba nomnyama khona, ukukhandela bonyana zingagcwali khulu endaweni eyodwa ekhanyiswe kuhle.

Ubujamo bezulu kanye nobomoya kungaba ngenye yikinga. Kungaba ncono khulu ukukhetha ezikhulisa ncono ngaphasi kobujamo bezulu obutjhisako, njengeenkukhu zesintu, nofana lezo zeentamo ezinganamasiba, nangabe iinkukhwezi ziyokukhiqizelwa ngaphandle endaweni efuthumeleko. Kufuze kuqinisekiswe itjhejo elaneleko lokobanyana iinkukhwezi zifumana umthunzi owaneleko kanye namanzi begodu lokho kuzakuvimbela bonyana umtjhiso ungabi nomthelela omumbi ekudleni kwazo.

Ukugandeleleka komkhumbulo okubangwa makhaza enkukwini, kunomthelela omumbi ekubeni nepilo ehle kwenkukhu ngombana kurholela ekutheni zigcine zidinga umdlandla odluleleko ukuthi zifuthumale.

Indlela elula yokubona, bonyana iinkukhu zigandeleleke emkhumbulweni ngebanga lamakhaza nofana umtjhiso, kukuthi ukuqale iindlela eziziphatha ngayo nezenza ngayo izinto. Iinkukhu ezizwa amakhaza zibuthelelana ndawonye ukwenzela bonyana zifuthumezane. Begodu zidla khulu ukudlula ngendlela ejayelekileko ukwenzela ukubuyisa umdlandla eziwulobe lokha nazilinga ukuzifuthumeza.

Iinkukhu ezigandeleleke ngokomkhumbulo ngebanga lomtjhiso, ziphefumulela phezulu begodu ziphefumula masinya. Ziphakamisa iimpiko zazo, begodu ziyatjhida lapho kunezinye khona, ukwenzela bonyana zithole umoya opholileko begodu zingaba buthakathaka. Ukugandeleleka ngokomkhumbulo kweenkukhu okubangwa mtjhiso odluleleko, kungabangela bonyana zitjheke, beziyathe nofana zilahlekelwe mamandla.

Lokha nazikhiqizelwa ehogweni yeenkukhu, ukulawulwa kobujamo bomtjhiso, kungasetjenziswa ukuphakamisa nokwehlisa amazinga womtjhiso kanye nezinga lokuthamba. Kufuze kuqiniseikswe bonyana kutjhejwa khulu bonyana kukhandelwa ukungene komoya omnengi nofana omncani. Iqhinga ngelokuthi kufuze kube nokungena nokuphuma komoya okwaneleko ukwenzela bonyana kubethe umoya become lapho kumanzi khona, kodwana khonapho kufuze kubalekelwe kungagcini sele kumodza.

Ukungasuswa kuhle kokuthambileko lapho iinkukhu zilala khona, kungabangela bonyana kube nezinga eliphezulu le-ammonia bese kubanga bonyana iinkukhu zibanjwe malwelwe amanengi ahlobene nokuphefumula. Nangabe ubujamo bangaphakathi eehogweni bome khulu, lokho kungabangela bonyana iinkukhu zihlukunyezwe lithuli.

Ukuba Semathubeni Wokubanjwa Malwelwe kanye Nabonobangela Bamalwelwe Abanengi

Ukungahlwengisi kuhle nofana ukungalawulwa kweentwala, kungabanga bonyana iikunkhu zigadeleleke ngokomkhumbulo ngombana zingakavikeleki eenyonini zomango amakhondlo neempukani. Iinlwanyanezi azitshwenyi iikhukhwezi kwaphela, kodwana ziletha nobungozi bamalwelwe. Iinkukhu zingagandeleleka emkhumbulweni ngombana zigula, nekusigandeleli esibangawa kugula esibizwa nge-pathological stress. Ukuphungula ukugandelelekokhu, kuvimbele imiraro, iinkukhu kufanele zilatjhwe msinya ngendlela ekungakgonakala ngayo.

Ukuphatha Kwendawo

©Chris Daly
Ubungako bendawo, bungaba mraro lokha iinkukhu zigcwele khulu, lokho kungabangela bonyana ziphalisanele ukudla nokusela amanzi kanye nokungasaziphathi kuhle. Inkukhu zingagandeleleka ngokomkhumbula nalokha zibanjwa, ziphathwa nofana zilatjhwako. Abakhiqizi kufanele bona bahlele bonyana babamba iinkukhwezi kuhle ukuqinisekisa bonyana azigandeleleki ngokomkhumbulo ngendlela abangakghona ngayo.

Amatshwayo Wesigandeleli Somkhumbulu

Lokhu okulandelako matshwayo wokobanyana iinkukhu zigandeleleke ngokomkhumbulo:
  • Ukuhlaselana, nokulwa
  • Ukuthintheka, nofana ukuwa kweensiba
  • Ukutjhugulula indlela ezidla ngayo – zidla khulu nofana kancani kunangendlela ejayelekileko
  • Ukuvilapha nofana ukuphelelwa mamandla nokubabuthakathaka
  • Ukonda
  • Ukwehla kwezinga lokubekela kilezo ezibekelako
  • amalwelwe

Translated by Johannes Nkosinathi