UNelson Rolihlahla Mandela njengoba kusho uRaymond Louw

© Eric Miller

Okuhloswe ukuba yinkosi

Ukuphila kwakhe konke uMongameli Mandela ubelokhu eqeqesha indima yokuhola edlala namhlanje. UNelson URohlahlahlahla Mandela (ngesiXhosa, Rolihlahla ngokwezwi nezwi lisho "ukudonsa igatsha emthini" kodwa incazelo enembile ehambisanayo "ingcindezi") wazalwa ngoNtulikazi 18 1918, eQunu, ngaseMtata eTranskei, indodana kaNonpaphi Nosekeni kanye UHenry Mgadla Mandela, ikhansela eliyinhloko enkosini enkulu yeThembu.

Wachitha ebusheni bakhe eTranskei ekulungiswa ukuba abe yinhloko. Ubaba wakhe washona ngo-1930, waba yindlalifa yomzala wakhe, induna ehloniphekile yeThembu, uDavid Dalindyebo. Wabafundile esikoleni saseHealdtown Methodist Boarding futhi waya e-Fort Hare University College lapho enza khona ezombangazwe zabafundi. Lapho, naye wahlangana no-Oliver Tambo owagcina enguMongameli we-ANC. Bobabili baxoshwa ngo-1940 ngokuba beyinxenye yesiteleka sabafundi.

Ukusungulwa kwe-ANC Youth League

UMandela uphumelele eGoli - waxoshwa ngokuyingxenye yakhe ngesifiso sokugwema umshado ohleliwe - futhi wathola umsebenzi emayini yegolide njengephoyisa. Ngokushesha ngemva kwalokho wathola izihlobo futhi washesha wafihla. Wahlangana noWalter Sisulu, ofana noTambo waba ngumngane wakhe. USisulu wamsiza ukuba athole umsebenzi enkampani yezomthetho.Uqedile i-BA degree ngeposi futhi waqeda iLLB yakhe eNyuvesi yaseWitwatersrand. Wavunyelwa njengommeli ekuqaleni kwawo-1950 futhi wavula umkhuba no-Oliver Tambo.

Kwakuwubambiswano bokuqala obomnyama ezweni. Bahlukunyezwa yiziphathimandla ezazifuna ukuzikhipha "ezimhlophe zaseGoli" zibe "ngemuva kweminye." Babuye bazama ukuba negama likaMandela lishaywe emgqeni wabameli. Ngaleso sikhathi, uMandela wayeyingxenye ehamba phambili yeqembu elinamandla elinamalunga angamashumi ayisithupha amasha e-ANC ayenesineke ngamasu kaholidi we-ANC wokubambisana komthetho kanye nokuncenga kukahulumeni.

Ngaphambi kwalokho wayenqume ukwakha i-ANC ibe yinhlangano enkulu ngokugqugquzela ubuzwe obukhulu be-Afrika nokuzikhethela. Isinyathelo sokuqala esithathwe ngo-1944 - sasisungulwa nguSisulu noTambo we-African National Congress Youth League (i-ANCYL), okwaba ngumongameli wezwe ngasekupheleni kwawo-1950. I-ANCYL idinga ukuba yisakhamuzi esigcwele kanye nokumelelwa kwephalamende ngokuqondile kubo bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika, ukubuyiswa komhlaba, amalungelo e-syndicate, imfundo yamahhala neyimpoqo kanye nenqubo yamasiko.

Ngakho wazalwa Umkhankaso Wokuziphendukela Kweminyaka yama-1950 owaba "yivolontiya-inhloko" kazwelonke. Izenzo zabo zokuqala kwakuzokwephula imithetho yesikhathi sokufika ekhaya. Manje kwaqala isikhathi lapho uMandela ephikisana khona njalo neziphathimandla.

Isenzo esingezona ngokohlanga

Ekuqaleni uMandela kanye nozakwabo babengathembeki kwezinye izinhlanga futhi balandela umkhuba jikelele we-Africanist. Kodwa ngenkathi uMkhankaso Wokuziphendulela waqala ukuguqula imibono yakhe futhi kamuva waba ngumgqugquzeli oqinile wezenzo ezihlangene ezingabandlululo. Ngo-1952 yena nabanye abaningi baboshwa futhi bebekwa icala ngaphansi kokususwa koMthetho wobuKhomanisi.

Utholwe enecala futhi wanikezwa isigwebo sezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye ejele iminyaka emibili. Wayevinjelwe nokuya emihlanganweni futhi wavinjelwa ekushiyeni endaweni yaseGoli. Ngokushesha nje lapho ama-oda akhe wokuvinjelwa esephelelwe yisikhathi avuselelwa okwesikhashana futhi lokhu kwaqhubeka iminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye, kodwa waqhubeka esebenza namaqembu amancane futhi wamisa uhlelo lwamaseli emagatsheni e-ANC ngokulungiselela amathuba okusebenza komhlaba.

Icala lokuhlubuka

1956 wayengomunye wabaphikisi bezombangazwe abangu-156 ababoshwa futhi bebekwa icala lokuhlubuka okukhulu. Lokhu kwaba yinto eyaziwa ngokuthi "iTrans Trial" eyadonsela ukunakwa emhlabeni jikelele futhi yahlala cishe iminyaka emihlanu. UMandela nomunye ummangalelwe babesebenze ukuzivikela ngemuva kokuba abameli babo baphambuke ngesikhathi sango-1960. Ekugcineni bonke babenecala. I-ANC ivinjelwe ngo-1961. UMandela wahamba ngaphansi komhlaba wabe eseziwa ngokuthi "Black Pimpernel" njengoba evimbela amaphoyisa izinyanga ezingu-17.

Ngezinye izikhathi wayezokhipha izethameli abamnyama ngokubonakala emihlanganweni, enze inkulumo futhi aphele. Wayeqhuba umkhankaso womhlangano kazwelonke ukuze wakhe umthethosisekelo wentando yeningi, kanye nokuhlelwa kwemigomo yokuhlala ekhaya kanye nemiboniso.

Okungenani umlobi wephephandabeni owodwa, uPeter Hazelhurst, waxoxa naye ngalesi sikhathi. U-Hazelhurst wathathwa lapho ehambela khona edolobheni, eboshwe amehlo futhi eqhutshwa emjikelezweni ukuze amdideke. Esikhathini esithile kamuva wathola ekamelweni. Isibopho sezingubo sasisuswa futhi kwakukhona uMandela. Umbiko wakhe wezimfuno zikaMandela uvele ephaphandabeni leSonto Express futhi uthukuthele iziphathimandla.

Babefuna ukwazi ukuthi ukhona kuphi uMandela, kodwa uHazelhurst wayengenakukwazi ukubatshela, ngenxa yokuthi wayinikeze izwi lakhe ngeke akwenze lokho, kodwa futhi ngenxa yokuthi wayengenayo inkinga lapho ayeyithathwe khona. Kodwa leyo ngxoxo iphakanyiswe nohulumeni.

Iphephandaba leRand Daily Mail

Eminyakeni engaba yishumi nambili kamuva lapho uNdunankulu Vorster engibuza mayelana nokuziphatha kweRand Daily Mail, engangingumhleli ngaleso sikhathi, ngokusobala lolu daba lusezingeni eliphezulu. Wabuza, "Kungani ungasitsheli ukuthi ukhona kuphi uMandela lapho intatheli evela ephepheni lakho ibuza lapho egijima ngo-1961?" Amaphoyisa asePerster's Security, ayemxoxe ngaphambi kokuba sihlangane, ayengalunganga. Ngangithokozisa kakhulu ukuthi ngitshele uVorster ukuthi wayemangalela leli phephandaba elitholwe incwadi kadade. U-Vorster wayeyiNgqongqoshe Wezobulungiswa ngesikhathi sokuxhaphazwa kukaMandela futhi "u-Black Pimpernel" wenze iziwula zamaphoyisa.

Ukuphela Kwenkululeko

Phakathi nalesi sikhathi waxoshwa ngaphandle ezweni futhi wenza ukubonakala okumangalisayo ePhalamende le-Pan-African Freedom Movement e-Addis Ababa ngoJanuwari 1962. Waya eLondon futhi wahlangana nabaholi bamaqembu aseBrithani aphikisayo. Wabuye waba nokuqeqeshwa kwama-guerrilla e-Algeria. UMandela uhambele izwe elivame ukuguqulwa njengomshayeli womkhiqizi wezemidlalo uCecil Williams, ilungu lephiko le-ANC elihlomile. Kwakusendleleni esuka eThekwini iya eGoli ukuthi ekugcineni wabanjwa noWilliam emgibe wamaphoyisa ngaseWowick eNatali. Lokho kwakuzoba ukuphela kwenkululeko iminyaka engaphezu kwamashumi amabili nesikhombisa.

Translated by Nsika Khoza