Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela kusho Raymond Louw

© Eric Miller

Ubekelwe kuba Sikhulu

Imphilo yakhe yonkhe Mengameli Mandela bekalungiselelwa umsebenti wekuba ngumholi lalangiko namuhla. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (ngesi Xhosa, Rolihlahla usho kutsi ʺ kudonsa ligala lesihlahlaʺ kepha lichaza kahle ʺumuntfu lotsandza umsindvoʺ) watalwa ngenyanga yaKholwane ngelusuku lwelishumi nesiphohlongo nga 1918, eQunu dvute nase Mtata eTranskei, yindvodzana ya Nonqaphi Nosekeni kanye na Henry Mgadla Mandela, sikhulu leselulekako liningi letikhulu te bateThembu.

Wacitsa sikhatsi asengumntfwana eTranskei akhuliswa kuba sikhulu. Uyise wakhe washona nga 1930 wase yena ubaphansi kwesandla semzala wakhe, lobekaluleka tikhulu teba thembu ngaleso sikhatsi, David Dalindyebo.

Wenta imatric yakhe eHealdtown Methodist Esikolweni lekuhlalwa kiso wase uya eFort Hare Likolishi leliyiNyuvesi lapho angenela khona ipolitiki yebafundzi. Lapho, futsi, wahlangana na Oliver Tambo lowabese muva uba nguMengameli we ANC. Bobabili bacoshwa nga 1940 ngekungenele sitelega sebafundzi.

Kucalwa kwe Licembu Lelincane le ANC

Mandela wesuka weta eGoli — wenta ngencenye ngekufuna entela kugwema umshado lobowulungiselelwe yena — wase utfola umsebenti webuphoyisa emayini yeligolide. Ngekushesha emva kwaloko watfolwa tihlobo takhe wase uvela uyahamba uyobhaca. Wahlangana na Walter Sisulu, lenaye njenga Tambo baba bangabi labakhulu. Sisulu wamusita kutsi atfole umsebenti nefemu lesebenta ngemtsetfo.

Wacedzela iBA yakhe ngekufundza ngeliposi wase uyocedzela iLLB yakhe eNyuvesi ye Witwatersrand. Watsatfwa njenge mumeli ekucaleni kwa 1950 wase uvula indzawo yekusebentela ana Oliver Tambo. Kwaba yinkampani yekucala yebantfu labamnyama lebebasebenta ngemtsetfo kulelive.

Bahlukunyetwa tiphatsi mandla lebetifuna kubasusa ʺendzaweni yalabamhlophe eGoliʺ kuyaʺ emuva lokusekugcineni’. Baphindze bazama kwenta ligama la Mandela lisuke kumisebenti yebameli. Kusuka lapho, Mandela bekangumuholi welicumbu lensha yemalunga eANC labekamashumi lasitfupha labekacinile lebe akadze angenako kubeketela netindlela tebuholi be ANC temtsetfo sisekelo kanye nesicelo lesipholile sa hulumende.

Ekucaleni abencume kwakha le ANC ibe licembu lelinyakatako ngekwakha kutfolakala kwe Buve be Afrika kanye nekutimisela wena. Sinyatsel sekucala lesatsatfwa nga 1994 --- kucala kwakhe na Sisulu kanye na Tambo be Licembu Lensha ye Afrikan National Congress (ANCYL), lelapho waba ngumengameli we sive ekupheleni kwa 1950. Le ANCYL yaphocelela buve lobugcwele kanye nemuntfu lokunguyena atobamelela njenge Ningizimu Afrika ephalamende, kwabelwa kwendzawo, emalungelo etisebenti, imfundvo lemahhala nalefundvwa nguwonkhe muntfu kanye netinhlelo tebuve/buntfu.

Ngako ke kwatalwa Umuvo weMkhankaso wa 1950 lelapho kwaba kwesive ʺlivolontiya leti - khuluʺ. Tento tekucala bekukwephula ticondziso. Nyalo kucale sikhatsi lapho Mandela bekadvute nekubhekana netikhulu.

Sento Sekubumbana Kwekungabikulubandlululo

Ekucaleni Mandela kanye nebantfu lasebenta nabo bebangatsenjwa ngulalamanye emacembu base balandzela lendlela yema Afrika. Kepha ngesikhatsi semkhankaso we Muvo wacala kulungisa emibono yakhe kwatsi muva waba ngumlandzeli locinile we Sento Sekubambana Kwekungabi nelubandlululo.

Nga 1952 yena kanye nenombolo yalabanye baboshwa baphindze bagwejwa ngaphansi Kwekucindzetelwa Sento Semakhomanisi. Wanikwa tinyanga letiyimfica wase umiswa iminyaka lemibili. Waphindze wavalwa ekungeneleni imicimbi kwatsiwa angaphumi nase Goli.

Kwatso nje nakuphela sikhatsi sekumiswa kwavele kwalungiswa futsi loku kwenteka iminyaka leyimfica lelandzelako, kepha wachubeka wasebenta nemacembu lamancane waphindze wafundzisa indlela yemaseli kumagatja eANC ekulungiseleleni ematfuba etintfo tangaphansi.

Licala Lekuvukela umbuso

Ngenyanga ye Ngongoni nga 1956 waba ngumunye walabebalikhulu nemashumi lasihlanu nesitfupha bepolitiki lebaboshwa baphindze bagwetjwa ngekuvukela umbuso lokuphakeme. Loku kwaba yintfo leyatiwa ʺ Licala Lekuvukela Umbusoʺ lokwadonsa umhlaba wonkhe phindze kwatsatsa cishe iminyaka lesihlanu.

Mandela kanye nalabanye bomsolwa bachuba kutivikela emvakwekuba bameli babo bayekele kubamelela ngesikhatsi lesiphutfumako sa 1960. Ekugcineni bonkhe bakhululwa. iANC yamiswa nga 1961. Mandela waya ekubhaceni wase watiwa nge ʺNdvodza Lemnyama Lenesibindziʺ njengoba abengenelele emaphoyisa tinyanga letilishumi nesikhombisa.

Ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi abeshisisa licembu lebantfu labamnyama ngekuvela emihlanganweni, ente inkhulumo aphindze anyamalale. Abehola/aphetse umkhankaso wemhlangano we sive lobo uwekwakha umtsetfo sisekelo welukhetfo, kanye nekulungisela sitelega sekuhlala ekhaya kanye nemiboniso.

Kwaba ncono ngoba yinye intsatseli yeliphephandzaba, Peter Hazelhurst, wamukhulumisa ngaleso sikhatsi. hazelhurst watsatfwa kulenye indzawo edolobheni, avalwe emehlo wase uhanjiswa ngesekeli bentela kumudida. Kwatsi muva watitfola asendlini letsite. Loku bekumumbonye emehlweni kwasuswa watsi uyabuka wabona Mandela.

Kubika lokwaphocelelwa kwa Mandela kwavela ephepheni le Sunday Express kwaphindze kwakwatisa tikhulu. Bebafuna kwati kutsi ukuphi Mandela, kepha Hazelhurst akakhonanga kubatisa, kancane ngoba abenike emave akhe kutsi angeke ente njalo/ asho lutfo, kantsi futsi nekutsi abengafuni kusho kutsi bekamikiswe kuphi. Kepha leto tinkhulumo takwatisa hulumende.

Liphephandzaba le Rand Daily

Iminyaka lelishumi nakubili ngasekupheleni lapho khona Ndvuna Nkhulu Vorster wangibuta ngenchubo ye Rand Daily Mail, lelapho bengingumhleli ngaleso sikhatsi, lenkinga kusho kona kutsi beyisolo imukwatisile. Wabuta, ʺAwusitjelanga ngani kutsi Mandela abekuphi nekutsi intsatseli yasephepheni lakho yakhuluma naye ngalesikhatsi abaleka nga 1961?ʺ Bogadzi Bemaphoyisa ba Vorster, bamutjela kancane ngaphambi sifike, bakutfola kabi.

Kwanginika kwenetiseka lokuncane kutsi ngitjele Vorster kutsi abesola liphephandzaba lelacuphulwa ngulokwavetwa ngudzadze walo. Vorster, yebo, beka ngu Minista weMtsetfo ngalesikhatsi Mandela ahlaselwa kantsi futsi ʺIndvodza Lenesibindzi Lemnyamaʺ yenta emaophoyisa tilima.

Kuphela kwe Nkhululeko

Ngalesikhatsi lesi abesahanjisiwe aphumele ngaphandle kwalelive waphindze wavela Emhlanganweni we Pan -Afrika Wekunyakata Ngenkhululeko angakagadvwa lobowuse Addis Ababa ngenyanga ya Bhimbidvwane nga 1962. Wahamba waya eLondon wafike wahlangana nemaphathi laphikisako ase British.

Waphindza wangenela kutilungiselela ecenjini lelincane lemphi lase Algeria. Mandela wahamba kulelive kakhulu atifihlile ashayelelwa afana nemkhiciti Cecil Williams, lilunga le ANC lelisephikweni. Abeseluhambeni asuka eThekwini aya eGoli lapho abanjwa khona ana Williams babanjwa ngemaphoyisa dvute nase Howick eNatali. Loko kwaba kuphela kwenkhululeko yeminyaka yemashumi lamabili nesikhombisa.

Translated by Phindile Malotana