uNelson Rolihlahla Mandela Ngoku Bhalwa ngu Raymond Louw

© Eric Miller

uZalelwe uBukhosi

Ubomi bakhe bonke uMongameli uMandela waye kuqeqesho lobayile nkokheli abonakala eyiyo namhlanje. uNelson Rholihlala Mandela (Ngesixhosa uRholihlala uthetha “ukutsala isebe emthini” kodwa eyona nguqulelo iyiyo, ithetha “umenzi nkathazo”) wazalwa ngomhla ka 18 July ngonyaka ka 1918, eQunu, ngase Mtata eTranskei, unyana ka Nonqaphi Nosekeni no Henry Mgadla Mandela, iNkosi enguSihlalo kwinkosi ephezulu YabaThembu. Wachitha ubuntwana bakhe eTranskei elungiselelwa ubuKhosi.

UTata wakhe wasweleka ngo 1930, ze wagadwa ngu mzala wakhe, owayelibambela leNkosi enkulu yelizwe laBathembu, uDavid Dalindyebo. Wagqiba izifundo zebanga eliphezulu eHealdtown Methodist Boarding School ze akugqiba waya kwi Yunivesithi yase Fort Hare apho wangena khona ezopolitiko zabafundi, apho nakhona wadibana no Oliver Tambo, owathi ke exesheni wangu Mongameli we ANC. Bobabini bagxothwa ngonyaka ka 1940 ngokuthatha inxaxheba kuqhanqalazo lwabafundi.

Ukusekwa kwe ANC Youth League

uMandela wasingisa kwelase Goli-ezama ukubaleka umtshato owayewubekelwe wesintu- wafumana umsebenzi emayini njenge polisa . kungekudala wabhaqwa zizihlobo wazimela. Wadibana no Walter Sisulu, njengo Tambo wabangu mhlobo wobomi. uSisulu wamnceda agqibezele izifundo zakhe no mzi ojongene nezomthetho.

Wagqiba izifundo zakhe ze BA ngokufundela ekhaya, waqhubekeka wenza izifundo ze LLB kwi Yunivesithi yase Witwatersarand. Wathi waligqwetha elipheleleyo ukuqaleni konyaka ka 1950s wazimela kwezobugqwetha no Oliver Tambo. Babenga bokuqala bamnyama ukuzimela kwezo bugqwetha kweli lizwe. Babe hlukumezwa ngabasema gunyeni ababefuna baphume “kwi Goli yaba mhlophe” baye “ngasemva”.

Bazama nokucima igama lika Mandela kuluhlu lwama Gqwetha. Ngelo xesha, uMandela wayekhokhela iqembu labangamashumi amathandathu abomeleleyo kwaye abatsha abangamalungu we ANC, ababedikiwe ngabo babe phethe lombutho nendlela urhulumente wayeqhuba ngayo. Waye sandu kokha lombutho we ANC ngokuzisa inkululeko yelizwe nokuzimisela. Inyathelo lokuqala lathabathwa ngonyaka ka 1994-omnye umseki yayingu Walter Sisulu no Tambo be African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), wathi wangu mongameli ekupheleni konyaka ka 1950s.

I-ANCYL yafuna ubuzwe obuphelelyo nokokuba bakwazi ukumelwa ePalamente kuMzantsi Afrika, ekuhanjisweni komhlaba, kwi mibutho yamalungelo abasebenzi, imfundo emahala waye engaxoxisiyo kunye nenkonzo yenkcubeko. Oku ke yayikukuzalwa ko mkhankaso wokuchasana wonyaka u1950 apho ke waba yi “National-volunteer-in-chief”. Isenzo zokuqala zaphula imithetho yesiqhelo. Kwafika ixesha apho loka Mandela wayesoloko ejongene nabomthetho.

Isenzo Sobumbano Esingenamkhethe

Ekuqaleni uMandela nabahlobo bakhe babengathembi ezinye intlanga nje ngawo wonke umntu omnyama. Kodwa ngexesha lomkhankaso wokuchasana, wazama ukutshintsha imbono zakhe emveni koko waphambili ukulwela ukubumbana nokungena mkhethe. Ngonyaka ka 1952, yena nabanye abaliqela babekwa ityala phantsi koMthetho wengcine zelo lwama komanisi.

Wagwetywa inyanga ezilithoba iminyaka emibini yaxhonywa. Wavalwa ekuhambeni iindibano nokushiya iGoli. Emveni kokuphela komthetho wesibeno, babesihlaziya oku kuqhubeke iminyaka elithoba, kodwa waqhubeka ukusebenza namaqembu amancinci waqala inkqubo kwiziphaluka ze ANC ezama ukulungiselela ukusebenzela phantsi komhlaba.

Ityala loku Ngcatsha uMbuso

Ngo Decemba ka 1956 wayengomnye wamatsha ntliziyo ayi 156 ezopolitiko athi abanjwa abekwa ityala eliphezulu loku Ngcatsha umbuso. Le ke yabayi ndumasi ye “Yetyala loku Ngcatsha umbusu” elabano mtsalane kwilizwe jikelele iminyaka emihlanu. uMandela nomnye umtyholwa babezimele emveni kokuba amagqwetha wabo arhoxa ngexesha longxamiseko ngo 1960.

Ekugqibeleni banikwa inceba. ANC yafumana isibheno ngonyaka ka 1961. uMandela wangena phantsi komhlaba waziwa njenge “Black Pimpernel” njengoko wayevingce amapolisa inyanga ezilishumi nesixhenxe. Ixesha nexesha waye sothusa abamnyama ngokuvela emihlanganweni, enze intetha aphinde anyamalale. Wayesenza umkhankaso we nkomfa jikelele ukwakha inkululeko, esenza iziteleka zokuhlala endlwini. Unondaba omnye uPeter Hazelhurst, wenza udliwano ndlebe naye.

UHazelhurst walandwa eRendezvous edolophini, wafakwa itshefu emehlweni kwaqhutywa naye ngezangqa ukumbhidisa ingqondo angaqapheli. Emveni kwexesha wazifumana ekwi gumbi. Itshefu yasuswa, waye lapho uMandela. Ingxelo yakhe yokufunwa ngu Mandela yavela kwiphepha iSunday Express, abasemagunyeni babano msindo kakhulu. Babefuna ukwazi okokuba uphi uMandela, kodwa uHazelhurst wayengakwazi ukubaxelela, ngenxayo kokuba wayebathembisile akasoze axele, kodwa nokokuba wayengazi ncam apho wayesiwe khona, kodwa olwadliwano ndlebe lwabase matheni ku rhulumente.

iRand Daily Mail

Kwiminyaka elishumi elinesibini eyadlulayo, umphathiswa dolophu uVoster wandibuza imibuzo nge nkqubo ye Rand Daily Mail, ndandi nguhleli ngeloxesha. Lomba ke wawusese matheni. Wabuza, “Kwakutheni ungasixeleli uphi uMandela xa intatheli esuka kwiphepha lakho yaba nodliwano ndlebe naye, ngoku waye bhacile ngonyaka ka 1961?”

Amapolisa ezokhuselo ka Vorster, ababemthele thsuphe phambi kwendibano, babe nolwazi elungelilo. Kwandonwabisa ukuxelela uVorster okokuba utyola iphepha elalinikwe indaba lelinye iphepha ndaba. uVoster ke ngokwenene waye ngumphathiswa wobulungisangexesha uMandela waye zimele, I-”Black Pimpernel” yayibhanxe amapolisa.

uKuphela kwe Nkululeko

Ngexesha lakhe wazinyeliswa ngaphandle koMzantsi Afrika wavela engalindelekanga kwi nkomfa ye Pan-African-Freedom Movement e Addis Ababa ngo January ka 1962. Wathabatha uhambo oluya eLondon wadibana nenkokheli eziphikisana ne Britani. Wafumana uqeqesho lwe Guerilla eAlgeria.

uMandela wahamba hamba ilizwe rhoqo ezenza umqhubi ka Cecil Williams, ilungu le ANC. Babesuka eThekwini besingise eGoli ukubanjwa kwakhe no Williams kwiqhinga elalenziwe ngama Polisa ngase Howick eNatal. Oku yaba kukuphela kwenkululeko iminyaka engamashumi amabini anesixhenxe.

 Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie