UMandela noMkhonto WeSizwe - Kubikwa nguBenjamin Pogurd

© Eric Miller

Umsindo Wesizwe

Maphakathi no-1961, abaholi be-ANC bahlangana ngasese futhi bathatha isinqumo esinzima sokwakha umkhonto weSizwe (MK), i-Spear of the Nation, ukulwa nomzabalazo wokulwa nobandlululo. UMandela ubekwe icala. Isinqumo sinesimiso esibucayi - ukuhlaselwa kuzokwenzelwa impahla, futhi ngeke kube khona ukubulawa kwabantu.
Lokhu kususelwa ekukholweni kwe-ANC kuMgomo kaMahatma Gandhi wokungaboni ubudlova futhi okwesibili ekubukeni kwembono ukuthi ababulali abamhlophe bazosebenza kuphela ukuqinisa ukwesaba kwabo ukubusa iningi. Ngaphandle kwezimbalwa ezimbalwa le nqubomgomo igcinwe eminyakeni emashumi amathathu alandelayo. Ngenqubomgomo entsha endaweni, uMandela wadabula i-Afrika waya eBrithani naseSoviet Union.

Uhulumeni wayeqaphele ukubuya kwakhe kodwa waphindela emuva ngaphandle kokungenwa, ephuma e-Bechuanaland ngaleso sikhathi, manje eyiBotswana. Iziphathimandla zaseBrithani zaseColombia zazi ukuthi zizofika nini eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa azizange zitshele iPitoli. Ngatshelwa lokhu ngumphathi wezokuphepha, uGerry Forrest, futhi ngikholwa nguye ngoba ngayazi kusukela ekuxoxweni kwangaphambilini ukuthi ube nombono ophansi wamaphoyisa aseNingizimu Afrika futhi engathandi abalingani bakhe bokuphepha ngenxa yokuzikhandla kwabo.
Esinye isenzakalo esamcasule ngesikhathi eshayela eNingizimu Afrika futhi iphoyisa elisemngceleni wamyala ukuba avule ibhuthini yemoto yakhe. 'Ucabanga ukuthi ngifihla uMandela enjini?' UForrest wayebuze ngokudabuka. Ngo-Ncwaba 1962, uMandela wathunjwa ngesikhathi ehamba eNatali, futhi wazama ukugwetshwa futhi washiya izwe ngokungemthetho.

Ugwetshwe eRobben Island

Kamuva, ngenkathi eboshiwe, ukuhlaselwa kweRivonia kwenzeka futhi, ngokusebenzisa ubufakazi obumbhalo obutholakala lapho, yena nabanye osebenza nabo baqokelwa amacala okuzama ukuchitha phansi uhulumeni ngamandla. Isijeziso sokufa sasingufu elikhulu phezu kwalolu cwaningo futhi besatshiswa njengento engokoqobo. Ngaphandle kwemibuthano kahulumeni kwakucatshangwa ngenkathi nje kuphela amandla okucindezeleka kwamazwe omhlaba okwenze ukuthi ijaji libuyele futhi esikhundleni sokubeka ukuboshwa kukaMandela.
UMandela wathathwa ejele laseRobben Island ejele elingaphakathi kwezingu-1 400 noma iziboshwa ezigcinwe lapho. Uhulumeni wenqaba ukuwavuma njengeziboshwa zezombusazwe futhi wagcizelela ukuthi bathole izinga elifanayo lokuboshwa njengeziboshwa ezivamile eziphuthumayo (ngaphandle kokuthi iziboshwa zezombangazwe zalahlwa ukukhululwa kwesigwebo esilandelayo kwababulali, abadlwenguli nabaphangi). UMandela ube nemigomo emincane yokudla eyabelwe abamnyama uma kuqhathaniswa neziboshwa zakhe ezinemibala kanye nama-Asian - futhi bonke babebancane kunabamhlophe, nabo baboshwa e-Rivonia Trial, ababegcinwe ejele lasePitoli.

ukudazulula okwenziwe yiDaily Mail

I-Rand Daily Mail yasize ekuthuthukiseni ukuphila kukaMandela nezinye iziboshwa ezimnyama ngokusebenzisa ukuvezwa kwethu kwezimo zasejele ezimbi kakhulu ngo-1965. Uhulumeni wenqabe iqiniso lezinto esasishicilela futhi sachitha iminyaka emine eshushisa abasolwazi bethu futhi ekugcineni umhleli nami ngokwami intatheli; Nokho, ngesikhathi esifanayo, senze ukuthuthukisa izimo.
Umphumela othize kaMandela nabanye, ukukhulula izinhlungu zabo zasebusika emangqamuzaneni abanda ukukhonkolo, ukuthi banikezwa izicathulo kanye namasokisi esikhundleni sezindwangu zenjoloba (ezinye iziboshwa azizange zibe nazo kodwa zahamba zingenangqatho); banikezwa ihhashi elide esikhundleni samafishane, futhi babephethe ama-jersey njengendaba. Izimo ezinzima zancipha kancane kancane futhi kwaba nokuphela kokuhlukunyezwa kwabalindisi uMandela ayekutholwa kuqala.
UMandela waqhubeka ekhula njengomuntu. Ubuhle bakhe bemvelo kanye nezimfanelo zobuholi beza phambili. Akagcini nje ngokuhola amadoda e-ANC etilongweni, kodwa futhi uhlonishwa yizimbangi zezepolitiki ze-ANC - amaPan-Africanist kanye nePoqo offshoots, i-African Resistance Movement encane kanye ne-Yu Chi Chan Club encane. UMandela wayehlale ekhona ukuze anikeze iseluleko kunoma ubani owayefuna. Wayeyaziwa ngokuzola kwakhe nokuzimisela ukulalela lokho abanye ababekushoyo.

Translated by Nsika Khoza