Mandela na Umkhonto we Sizwe – ku vika Benjamin Pogurd

© Eric Miller

Tlhari ra rixaka

Exikarhi kava-1961, varhangeri va vandla ra ANC va hlanganile exihundleni laha vanga teka xiboho xo simeka vuthu ra Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the Spear of the Nation, leswaku rita kota ku teka matlharhi ri lwisana na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu. Mandela u vekiwe kuva murhangeri. Xiboho lexi axiri na ntwanano wa nkoka — leswaku nhlaselo wutava eka miako, naswona akungavi na kudlayiwa ka vaaki.
Leswi aswisukela eka leswi vandla ra ANC ari tshemba ngopfu eka milawu ya Mahatma Gandhi yaku pfumala madzolonga naswona kudlawa ka valungu swita endla leswaku switiyisa ku chava ka vona ka leswaku ku fuma lavangana nhlayo yale henhla. Hambi leswi aku languteriwe swotala, nawu lowu wu landzeleriwile kuringana 30 wa malembe. Leswi akuri na nawu wuntshwa, Mandela u fambile exikarhi ka Afrika hinkwayo laha anga tlhela aya fika nale Britain xikan’we na Soviet Union.
Mfumo awu tshama wu tlhome tihlo eka kuvuya kayena laha anga kota kuvuya anga kavanyetiwanga, anghena hile ka ndzhawu leyi ayi vuriwa Bechuanaland, leyi sweswi kunga Botswana. Valawuri va British colony ava tiva nkarhi na ndzhawu leyi ata nghena hi yona laha Afrika Dzonga kambe ava potangi e Pretoria. Ndzi byeriwe leswi hi hosi ya vuhlayiseki, Gerry Forrest, ndzi kote naku n’wi tshemba hikuva eka mimburisano leyi hingava na yona endzhaku angari na vonelo ra kahle eka maphorisa ya tiko ra Afrika Dzonga naswona anga rhandzi tintangha tayena hintirho hikokwalaho ka maendlelo yavona na vusocha bya vona.
Xin’wana lexinga tshama xin’wi nyangatsa swinene ikuva siku anga nghena laha tikweni akarhi a chayela movha phorisa rinwana rin’wi pfurise na bonnet ya movha loko a fika endzelekanini wa tiko. 'Xana u ehleketa leswaku ndzi tumbete Mandela eka njhini ke?' Forrest avutisa hiku n’wi khanya. Hi August 1962, Mandela a khomiwa hinkarhi lowu a famba e Natal, atengisiwa xikan’we no pfaleriwa himilandzu yo hlohletela xikanwe no huma laha tikweni swingari e nawini.

Ku gweviwa kuya e Robben Island

Endzhaku nyana, loko ahari e khotsweni, kuve na musecho lowungava kona, hiku tirhisa maphepha lawa vanga wa kuma, yena na vatirhi kulorhi vakwe va hehliwile hi milandzu yotika swinene yaku ringeta ku vutla mfumo. Xigwevo xa rifu axiva ringanerile e henhla ka nandzu lowu naswona aku chaviwa leswaku vanga kuma xona. Ehandle kale mfun’wini aku ehleketiwa leswaku hinkari walowo akuri matimba yantshikelelo wa matiko mambe leswinga endla leswaku muchuchisi a chava kuteka xiboho xo va gweva rifu kambe ava pfalela kunene vutomi hinkwabyo.
Mandela u tekiwile a yisiwa e khotsweni ra Robben Island tani hi un’wana wa 1 400 kumbe kutlula wa vabohiwa lava ava pfaleriwile kona. Mfumo wu arile kuva teka tani hi vabohiwa va tipolotiki naswona ava sindzisa leswaku vafanele ku tekiwa tani hi vabohiwa vanwana na vanwana(handle kaleswaku vabohiwa va tipolotikti ava aleriwa ku herisiwa ka one-third ya xigwevo xavona leswi aswi endliwa eka vadlayi, vapfinyi xikan’we na lava khomeke nkuzi).
Mandela a phameriwa swakudya swoka swingari kahle eka leswi aswi phameriwa vantima loko kupimanyisiwa na vabohiwa vama- coloured kumbe vama-Asian— naswona avadya swintsongo kutlula valungu van’wana lavanga khomiwa navona eka Rivonia Trial, lava vangaya pfaleriwa eka Khotso rale kusuhi rale Pretoria.

Ku paluxa hi Daily Mail

Phepha hungu ra Rand Daily Mail ripfunile swinene eka ku antswisiwa ka vutomi bya Mandela na vabohiwa vanwana vavantima hikwalaho ka loko ri paluxe xiyimo xoka xingari kahle xale khotsweni hi lembe ra 1965. Mfumo wu kanetile ntiyiso lowu awu humesiwile eka phepha hungu leri laha wunga tshama 4 wa malembe wurikarhi wu tengisa no pfalela vanhu lavanga pfutisa mahungu lawa laha eku heteleleni kunga khomiwa na muhleriwa wa mahungu eka phepha hungu leri na mina tani hi muviki wa mahungu; hambiswiritano, hinkarhi walowo, vatiyisisile leswaku va antswisa xiyimo lexi.
Mbuyelo wokarhi wa Mandela xikan’we na lavan’wani, ku herisa kuva vakhomiwa hi xirhami lexi avaxi kuma eka semende, vanyikiwile tintanghu na masokisi ematshan’weni ya ti sandles(van’wana vabohiwa avangari natona avati fambela hi milenge); vanyikiwe maburuku yoleha ematshanweni yalawa ya three-quarter-length 'tsotsi' ('gangster') hiku koma, xikan’we na majesi. Swiyimo swinwana swotika swivuye swihela ngopfu ngopfu nsele wa valanguteri va Khotso laha Mandela a xanisiwa himasiku.
Mandela uye emahlweni a kula tani hi munhu. Vumunhu byakwe na vurhangeri byakwe swihumele erivaleni. Anga rhangelanga vavanuna va ANC ntsena e khotsweni, kambe a kuma nhlonipho na kusuka eka mavandla yanwana yokaneta tanihi — the Pan-Africanists na Poqo, African Resistance Movement na lerintsongo ra Yu Chi Chan Club. Mandela atshama akari a kumeka ku nyika switsundzuxo eka un’wana na un’wana loyi a lava ku tsundzuxiwa. Ativeriwa kurhula kayena xikan’we notiyimisela kutwa mavonelo yavan’wani.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni