Mandela kanye ne Mkhonto we Sizwe Umbiko lokhokhwa ngu Benjamin Pogrund

© Eric Miller

Sikhali se Sive

Phakatsi kwemnyaka wa 1961, baholi be ANC bahlangana ngekwemfihlo base batsatsa sincumo selikusasa ngekucala Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), Sikhali se Sive, kulwa ngenhlupheko ngelubandlululo. Kwabekwa Mandela abengumholi. Lesincumo besinendlela lebalulekile — kuhlasela kumele kwenteke esakhiweni, futsi kutobabete kubulawa kwe sive. Lokukwacondziswa kakhulu ku ANC lebeyitsembele kumugomo wa Mahatma Gandhi wekutsi makungabi nebudlova futsi kwesibili indlela yekubuka kutsi kubulala labamhlophe kutowenta kutsi kuciniseke kwesaba kwabo kwemtsetfo wentsandvo yelinyeti. Ngetintfo letimbalwa letigadziwe lona mgomo walungiselelwa iminyaka lemitsatfu leseta. Ngalo mgomo lomusha losendzaweni, Mandela wahamba iAfrika wengcela eBritain nase Soviet Union.
Hulumende bekagadze kubuya kwakhe kepha wabuya angakagadvwa,wangena ngase kwase kuba se Bechuanaland, nyalo yi Botswana. Baphatsi be British Colonial bebati sikhatsi lesingiso kanye nendzawo yekungena kwakhe eNingizimu Afrika, kepha abazange babatjele ePitoli. Loku ngakutjelwa ngumphatsi wabogadzi, Gerry Forest, ngametsemba ngoba bengati ngetunkhulumo taphambilini kutsi unembono lophansi ngemaphoyisa ase Ningizimu Afrika futsi abengatsandzi lencenye yabogadzi ngenca yekungakholelwa ngekumisa noma kuvala imibono.
Sinye sehlakalo lesamenyanyisa ngulapho khona atsi ushayela uya eNingizimu Afrika kwatsi lelinyeliphoyisa lelidvuna egedeni lelikhulu lamtjela kutsi akavule ibhonethi yemoto yakhe. ʹUcabanga kutsi ngifihle Mandela enjinini?ʹ Forrest wabuta ngekucansuka. Ngemnyaka wa 1962 enyangeni yeNgci, Mandela wabanjwa ahamba endzaweni yase Natali, wabekwa licala waphindze wavalelwa ejele ngekubayenga kanye nekuphuma kulelive ngalokungekho emtsetfwseni.

Wagwetjelwa eRobben Island

Kwatsi muva, solo aseboshiwe, luphenyo lwacala eRivoniya futsi, kwasetjentiswa emafilimu latfolwa lapho, yena nalabanye labekasebenta nabo bafakwa ekugwetjweni emacala ekufuna kujika hulumende ngemandla. Sijubo sekufa kwaba lifu lelisindzako ngetulu kwelicala futsi sasesatjwa njengentfo lengaba ngiyo sibili. Ngaphandle kwetindingilizi tahulumende kwacatjangwa kutsi ngaleso sikhatsi bekunguyona ndlela yekucina kwetintfo tangaphandle letifaka umtfutfo letenta lijaji kutsi libuye bese limisa sijubo sekuboshwa kwa Mandela imphilo yakhe yonkhe.
Mandela watsatfwa wamikiswa eRobben Island lijele lelinabogadzi labakalekile njengoba lingulinye latinkhulungwane nemakhulu lamane noma tiboshwa letibanjiwe lapho. Hulumende wala kubavuma njengetiboshwa tepolitiki kantsi esikhundleni saloko batfola sigaba lesilinganako sekugwetjwa njengetiboshwa letinye (ngaphandle kwekutsi tiboshwa tepolitiki abatinikanga sincephetelo lesingu kunye-nakutsatfu sesijubo lesinikwa lababulele, labadlwengulile kanye nalabagcekezile/labebile). Mandela waba nendlela lencane yekudla lokulungiselwe labamnyama kunalabo belilaba kanye netiboshwa tase Asia — futsi bonkhe bebanalokuncane kunalabamhlophe, nabo lababoshelwa emacala aseRivonia, lebebagcinwe ejele lase Pitoli.

Lokwavetwa yi Daily Mail

iRand Daily Mail yasita ekuphuculeni imphilo ya Mandela kanye naletinye tiboshwa letimnyama ngekuveta timo letiphansi tetiboshwa ngemnyaka wa 1965. Hulumende wala neliciniso laloko lesakukhokha wabese ucitsa leminyaka lemine leyalandzela ashushisa labasibikelako kwagcine kungumhleli wetfu kanye nami njengentsatseli; nomakunjalo, ngesikhatsi lesifanako, kwentelwa kutsi kutfutfuke tindlela.
Umphumela lotsite wa Mandela nalabanye, kukhulula buhlungu babo bemakhata kulesiyilo lesibandzako etitokisini tabo, kutsi banikwa ticatfulo kanye nemasokisi isekhundleni setincabule terabha (letinye tiboshwa atizange titfole kwakona loko bachubeka bahamba ngetinyawo); banikwa emabhuluko lamadze esikhundleni salawo lebekangentasi kwemadvolo ‘tsotsi’ (‘emaginsa’) lamafisha, futsi bebanemajezi njengenjwayelo. Letimo letimatima taya ngekuncipha futsi kwabanesiphetfo kumawada’ kuhlukunyetwa lapho khona Mandela waba wekucala esihlokweni.
Mandela wachubeka wakhula njengemuntfu. Bunguye bakhe lanabo kanye netimphawu tebuholi bakhe baphumela ebala. Akazange ahola emadvodza eANC ejele, kepha watfola kuhlonishwa ngulabantfu be ANC — lama Pan-Africanist kanye nema Pogo abo, Lelicembu le Resistance lelincane kanye nelicembu le Yu Chi Chan lencane. Mandela bekatfolakala sonkhe sikhatsi ekunikeni imiyalo kulowo lobekawufuna. Bekatiwa ngekulunga kwakhe kanye nekufuna kulalela labanye labakhulumako.

Translated by Phindile Malotana