Ukuqubuka kochoko eRobben Island

Ukusuka eJele Uya E-Infirmary

©David Fleminger
iRobben Island yabe iyindawo efanelekile ukuhambisa kuyo abagula ngengqondo, nabanezifo ezingalapheki abangenamali, ababezoletha ingcindezi kwizakhamuzi zase Ningizimu Afrika. Ukubeka lemiphefemulo entekenteke esiqhingini, le kude nabantu nasemehlweni onembeza babo, kwabukeka kuyiqhinga elihle, kusuka ku 1846 kuya ku 1931, iRobben Island yasetshenziselwa ukuqhelisa labo ababengafuneki emphakathini.

Maphakathi neminyaka ka 1800, kwaqubuka uchoko. Abanochoko okuningi labo babensundu bezimfabanga futhi, yibo abebeseshweni. Okokuqala baba nebhadi lalesisifo (elalingenasilapho ngalesosikhathi) bese, baphinde bazoba zisulu zomphakathi owawungabaxoleli ongabashayanga indiva wabathatha njengabangahlanzekile nabayingozi. Nanamuhla, ulwazi oluvelele lochoko luveza igciwane elinamathelanayo elenza iminwe yakho igcine iqathaka nesikhumba sibole. Iqiniso ukuthi, sesabeka ngaphezu kwalokho.

e-Robben Island, izisebenzi ze General Infirmary zazinakekela abanochoko ngawo wonke amandla azo. Ekwengezeni osizini lwabo, kwakunomqondo wokuthi amanzi olwandle angaba wusizo kwabaphila naleligciwane, kwabe sekusungulwa ichibi elidonswe olwandle laphayana ngasekugcineni kwesiqhingi ukuba bageze khona. Izinsalela zalelichibi zibizwa ngechibi lase Bethesda, zisabonakala nanamuhla, namanzi amnyama asele exoxa indaba kulamadwala asewumthangala ngesihluku salomphakathi owawuhlukumezekile. Abanochoko baseKapa babedeshulwa kumalunga omndeni wabo bayothiwa folokohlo esiqhingini.

Izimo Zempilo Esiqhingini

©David Fleminger
Zazisinda izimo zempilo esiqhingini. Amanzi ayegqoza, nesimo sezulu singemnandi neze, isithukuthezi sila naso kunye nesifo semfiva yohudo.

Ngo 1850, kwabe sekuzwakala izindaba ngezimo zempilo esiqhingini okwaphoqa iziphathimandla zixoshe uSomaqhuzu owayesiphethe. Ko 1860, uSomaqhuzu omusha wazama ukulungisa isimo, wabuyisela amakitango nokushaywa ngokuthi alethe unakekelo lwezempilo olunobuntu. Nokho ngeshwa izakhiwo zazingakaneli, nokho, isimo sabagqunywa sasingavuni inani lokuba sebengakhelwa izakhiwo ezintsha. Ukulungiswa kwezakhiwo okwakukukhulu kwenziwa kuphela la eminyakeni yo 1890.

Ngo 1931, iLeague Health Organisation yathi akungaphoqwa ukuqheliswa kwabanochoko bayiswe esiqhingini kunalokho akwenziwe indlela yokubagcina eceleni enozwelo okuyilapho kwaba nenkambiso eyabekwa ngabangenwe nabangakangenwa yileligciwane. Kuwona kanye lowonyaka lelizala labanochoko eliyi Robben Island lavalwa. Iziguli ezazisasele zayiswa esibhedlela eWestfort, eduze nePitoli.

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema